|Charles Stewart||W. W. Cory, O. M. G.|
Attempt is made in this brochure to group in alphabetical order the numerous military and trading forts erected under the French regime and by the English Fur-trading companies.
A few of these establishments were located on what is now territory of the United States, but the list is primarily concerned with the posts in Canada.
Historical notes on each fort are given as far as accessible sources
permit and lists are appended of authorities and maps consulted.
|French forts and trading posts|
|Main portage and canoe routes|
|Chain of French forts|
|French Trading Companies|
|Free Traders after cession of Canada|
|The North West Company|
|The Hudson's Bay Company|
|Alphabetical list of forts and posts|
|List of chief authorities consulted|
|List of Maps showing forts|
|[Summary List of Fort Names]|
|[Map 1: Canada showing Historic Forts and Trading Posts (small) (medium) (large)]|
|[Map 2: Mississippi & Ohio Valleys|
|Page||2,||Line 16,||for distinct read distant.|
|"||27,||" 17,||for Government read Governor.|
|"||32,||No. 22,||for village of Hartney read Souris.|
|"||40,||No. 55,||for 1857 read 1757.|
|"||43,||No. 70,||for latitude read longitude.|
|"||52,||No. 106,|| for Chilcotin lake read right bank of Chilcotin|
river at mouth of Chilko river.
|"||54,||No. 115,||line 1, read on Columbia river at Kettle Falls.|
|"||59,||No. 138,||add See No. 239.|
|"||64,||No. 154,||for Manitoba read Saskatchewan.|
|"||66,||No. 162,||for Bedford read Bedfont.|
|"||87,||No. 247,||for 20 miles read 50 miles.|
|"||109,||No. 338,||for at junction read near junction.|
|"||110,||No. 343,||for 14 miles read 60.|
|"||135,||No. 418,||omit Alberta.|
|"||169,||No. 554,||for Liard read Dease.|
|"||176,||No. 587,||for Winnipegosis read Waterhen.|
Two main objects called for the erection of forts and garrisoned posts by the Government of France in North America. First, there was the need of strongly built military forts for establishing the claims of New France. This required defence against the English colonies of New England and against the hostile Iroquois, their allies. Second, fortified posts were needed for protection of trade routes against incursions of the Iroquois, who from the days of Champlain were bitter enemies of the French.
During the struggle for possession of North America between France and England, which lasted for more than a century until 1763, the French Government constructed many strong forts and fortified outposts at strategic points where now exist thriving cities.
Rivalry in the fur trade, with its enormous profits, induced both French and English to solicit alliance with the Indians and this fostered wars of extermination between the Indians. On the one hand, the Algonquins and Hurons, staunch friends of the French, controlled the Nipissing and Ottawa trade route to Montréal and endeavoured to keep open the St. Lawrence route. On the other hand, the Iroquois barred the gateway of the St. Lawrence and tried to divert the fur trade from the French in Montreal to the English in Albany and New Amsterdam. For a time the Iroquois succeeded in preventing the Indians of the upper country from bringing their furs to Montreal.
Success in the fur trade thus depended upon control of the trade routes and for this purpose the French constructed fortified places at strategic points, beginning their erection early in the seventeenth century.
These forts were built in some cases solely for defence and military purposes; in other cases they were intended primarily for trading purposes, for the protection of the licensee fur-traders, and as establishing France's sovereignty. In some instances, though built for strategic and military defence, they became the headquarters of fur-trading merchants.
The location of the French forts was chosen with much foresight and military skill. A definite plan was followed with the design of restricting the English settlements to the territory east of the Alleghany mountains, The St Lawrence valley, lakes Ontario and Erie, the Ohio valley and the Mississippi were to constitute the natural boundary between New France and the English settlements. All the rest of North America, excepting the region held by Spain west of the Mississippi river, was claimed by France under the name of New France.
A complete chain of military forts was built by the French Government extending from Quebec along the St. Lawrence westward to the Great Lakes, including the Champlain valley. From the eastern end of lake Ontario these forts continued on the south of lake Ontario, and at Niagara Falls, to Presqu'Isle on the south shore of Lake Erie, whence they followed down the Alleghany river and the Ohio to the Mississippi, and then south to the mouth of that river.
Other forts were constructed on the Great Lakes, between the Mississippi and the Great Lakes, from lake Superior to Winnipeg, and thence westward to the foothills of the Rocky Mountains.
"The forest posts of France were not exclusively of a military character. Adjacent to most of them one would have a little cluster of Canadian dwellings, whose tenants lived under the protection of the garrison and obeyed the arbitrary will of the commandant, an authority which, however, was seldom exerted in a despotic spirit. Agriculture was neglected for the more congenial pursuits of the fur trade, and the restless, roving Canadians, scattered abroad on their wild vocation, allied themselves to Indian women and filled the woods with a mongrel race of bush-rangers.
French influence diffused itself through a thousand channels among distant tribes. Forts, mission houses and armed trading stations secured the principal passes. Traders and coureurs-des-bois pushed their adventurous traffic into the wildest deserts, and French guns and hatchets, French beads and cloth, French tobacco and brandy, were to be found among the Indians everywhere and showed the vast extent of French interior commerce. The French amalgamated with the Indians thus winning their friendship and alliance."
The following note is printed on a map [No. 12] entitled "Canada, Territory of the Indians and Hudson Bay," by Thomas Devine L. S., and found in Appendix to the Report of Minister of Crown Lands 1857: "Jeffreys, an English Geographer, writing 1760, just after the taking of Quebec and before the final conquest and cession of the country, at page 19 says:
At the mouth of Les Trois Rivières, or the Three Rivers, is a little French fort called Camenistagouia, and twenty-five leagues to the west of said fort, the land begins to slope and the river to run to the west. (The French league was 2½ English statute miles.)
At ninety-five leagues from this greatest height lies the second establishment of the French that way, called Fort St. Pierre, in the Lake des Pluies. The third is fort St. Charles eighty leagues farther on the Lake des Bois. The fourth is Fort Maurepas, a hundred leagues distant from the last, near the head of lake of Ouinipigon. Fort La Reine, which is the fifth, lies a hundred leagues farther on the river of the Assinibools (i.e. Assiniboine). Another fort had been built on the river Rouge, but was deserted on account of its vicinity to the two last. The sixth, Fort Dauphin, stands on the west side of Lac des Prairies or of the Meadows (lake Manitoba), and the seventh, which is called Fort Bourbon, stands on the shore of the Great Lake Bourbon (i.e. the northern part of lake Winnipeg). The chain ends with Fort Pascoyac at the bottom of a river of that name, which falls into lake Bourbon. The river Pascoyac is made by Delisle and Buache to rise within twenty-five leagues of their west sea which, they say, communicates with the Pacific Ocean.
A mistake was made by Jeffreys in saying above that "the chain ends with Fort Pascoyac," for three forts lay still farther to the west, though their garrison had probably been withdrawn before 1760. These forts were Fort Nipaween (variously spelled) on the Saskatchewan, Fort à la Corne just below the forks of the North and South Saskatchewan, and fort La Jonquière on the Bow river about where the city of Calgary now stands.
These ten western forts extending from fort St. Pierre on Rainy lake to Fort La Jonquière at the foot of the Rocky Mountains were all grouped under the general name "La Mer de l'Ouest." The Chevalier de la Corne was the last French officer to have charge of these western forts.
In addition to the forts of "La Mer de l'Ouest" the French had constructed at an early date forts or fortified posts controlling the routes by the St. Lawrence, the Ohio, and the Mississippi rivers, and along the north shore of the lower St. Lawrence, also in the interior at various places south of James and Hudson bays. That section of lower St. Lawrence known as the Domain du Roy was plentifully garrisoned with fortified posts known as King's posts.
Louis Antoine, Comte de Bougainville, came to Canada in 1756 as Montcalm's aide-de-camp. He kept a careful journal of the campaign ending with the surrender of Quebec and he also prepared a memoir on the state of New France now among the French archives in Paris. Pierre Margry, for many years Keeper of the Archives in the Department of the Marine and the Colonies at Paris, published Bougainville's memoir in his Relations et Memoires inédites pour servir a l'histoire de la France &c 1867. Bougainville's memoir dated 1757 is found on pp. 39 to 84 of Margry's Relations and contains a list of the French forts garrisoned at that time (1757) with short descriptions.
|St. Modet||Baye Rouge|
|Rivière St. Augustine||Méchatina|
|Les Sept Isles||Les Islets de Jérémie|
|Les Trois Rivières||Bekancourt|
|St. Jean||St. Frédérick|
|Fort de Chartres||Pimiteoui|
|St. Pierre||Lac des Deux Montagnes|
|St. Charles||La Long Sault|
|Les Miamis||La Rivière St. Joseph|
|Le Detroit (Pontchartrain)||La Presqu'Isle|
|La Rivière-au-Boeuf||Le fort Machault|
|Le fort Duquesne||Niagara|
|La Présentation||St. Regis|
|Sault St. Louis||Michilimakinac|
|Sault Ste. Marie||Ste. Thérèse|
With the exception of Fort Bourbon, which the French built in 1682 near the mouth of the Hayes river, there were no forts originally built by the French on the shores of Hudson or James Bays, but from 1684 to 1713 the French captured and held for various periods forts erected by the Hudson's Bay Company on the bays. These forts during this term of years changed hands several times and some were rebuilt by both French and English. Forts on Hudson bay were not much advantage to the French for the expense of transporting the furs overland to Montreal was almost prohibitive and the outlet by sea through Hudson Strait was always in the hands of the English. The Indians of the Hudson Bay region were suspicious of the French and preferred to trade with the Hudson's Bay Co.
The following chronological outline shows the changes in ownership of these forts between 1668 and 1713:
|1668||Groseilliers built the first fort on the shores of Hudson Bay. It was constructed of stone on the site of Henry Hudson's house of 1610 at the mouth of the Rupert river and was protected by a stockade. The name given to it was Fort Charles.|
|1670||Radisson and Groseilliers with Governor Bayly (the first of the Hudson's Bay governors) arrived at Fort Charles. Radisson crossed the Bay and built a rude fort at Port Nelson.|
|1673||Radisson and Groseilliers desert the Hudson's Bay Co.|
The H. B. Co. have four forts on the Bay, namely, Fort Charles on the Rupert river, also called Fort Rupert, Fort York (Fort Nelson) at the mouth of Nelson river, Fort Moose at mouth of Moose river, and Fort Albany at mouth of Albany river.
Radisson and Groseilliers, acting at that time in the interests of the French, arrived at Hayes river and built Fort Bourbon about 15 miles up the Hayes river.
Two other ships arrived soon after at Fort Nelson bringing Ben. Gillam (Jr.) from Boston and Zachary Gillam (Sr.) with Governor Bridgar of the H. B. Co. Gillam Sr. was drowned and Gillam Jr. and Bridgar were taken prisoners by the French and sent with their men to Fort Moose.
|1684||Radisson deserted the French and rejoined the H. B. Co. He returned to Hudson Bay and compelled Grosseilliers (who had remained at Fort Bourbon after it was built in 1682) to surrender to the English. The fort was then looted.|
|1685||A new French trading company, the Company of the North, was established. The H. B. Co. ship Perpetuana was captured and looted by the French and captain sent prisoner to Quebec.|
|1686||The main struggle for possession of the forts on Hudson and James bays began with an expedition overland from Montreal by way of the Ottawa river and lake Temiscamingue to the Moose river, in command of De Troyes and d'Iberville. Fort Moose surrendered to d'Iberville and its name was changed to Fort St. Louis. This fort was also known by several different names, viz., Fort Hayes Island, Fort Monsippi, Fort Monsonis, and Fort Bourbon. Fort Charles also surrendered to the French and was dismantled, and then Fort Albany was captured and the name changed to Fort Ste. Anne. This was a strongly built fort with four bastions and 43 guns. These captures were all effected while England and France were at peace.|
|1687||d'Iberville captured the H. B. Co. ship Churchill.|
|1688||Kelsey established a trading post at mouth of Churchill river for the H. B. Co.|
|1689||d'Iberville captured Fort Severn. Then returned to Fort Ste. Anne (formerly Fort Albany) and captured the H. B. ship, which had been sent to the Albany river to recapture the fort, and in her he sailed to Quebec. Fort Nelson now alone remained to the English.|
|1691||Kelsey for H. B. Co. explores northwest to the Rocky Mountains. A French frigate arrived off Fort Nelson and Governor Phipps set fire to the fort with its contents to save them from the French.|
|1692||The H. B. Co. rebuilt Fort Nelson and Governor Bayly was placed in charge. (This fort was also called Fort Bourbon, Fort York, and York Factory). Fort Albany was recaptured by the English also Fort Severn (1693).|
|1694||d'Iberville with two ships of war recaptured after a siege Fort Nelson which had been rebuilt by the English. The name was now changed to Fort Bourbon again and the Hayes river was called Ste. Thérèse river.|
|Fort Severn recaptured by the French. Fort Albany now alone remained to the English.|
|1696||The Hudson's Bay Company recaptured Fort Nelson.|
|1697||d'Iberville with five ships of war destroyed in a fierce naval battle the three English ships and captured Fort Nelson. The H. B. Co. now held only Fort Albany. Treaty of Ryswick.|
|1713||Treaty of Utrecht. The French withdraw from Hudson bay and the entire region of the bay was handed over to the English.|
|1714||Fort Nelson delivered to the English.|
|1718||Wooden fort built by H. B. Co. short distance from mouth of Churchill river.|
|1719||East Main and Slude river forts built.|
|1720||Fort Henley built 150 miles up the Albany river.|
|1733||Erection of Fort Prince of Wales begun.|
|1782||Fort Prince of Wales surrendered by Hearne to French and destroyed. Fort York captured and burned and rebuilt (1783) by H. B. Co.|
|1788||Fort York moved half mile upstream to present location on account of floods, requiring five years to move.|
|Held by English||Held by French|
|Fort Charles||1668 to 1686 |
1693 - 1697
1697 - 1713
|Fort Moose||1671 - 1686|
1693 - 1694
1694 - 1713
|Fort Albany||1683 - 1686|
1689 - 1692
1693 - 1713
1692 - 1693
|Fort Severn||1685 - 1689|
1693 - 1694
1694 - 1713
|Fort Nelson||1670 - 1694|
1696 - 1697
1697 - 1713
The only fort on Hudson's Bay held by the English between 1697 and 1713 was Fort Albany
The route to James Bay from the St. Lawrence, to Fort Charles (St. Jacques, or old Fort Rupert at the mouth of the Rupert river) was by the Saguenay river, lake St. John, Ashuapmouchouan river, lake Mistassini, and the Rupert river. This route which was first traversed by Father Albanel S. J. in 1672 was continuously used by the French for seventy-five years before the cession of Canada. The route was guarded by seven forts or fortified stations from Fort Tadoussac at the mouth of the Saguenay to Fort Charles.
Three routes led to Fort Moose (called by the French fort St. Louis, Monsippi, or Monsonis) at the mouth of the Moose river.
The second route was by the Ottawa river to Mattawa, to lake Nipissing, Georgian Bay, lake Superior to Michipicoten, Michipicoten river, Missinaibi river, Moose river. The fort at Michipicoten protected this route.
A third route was from Three Rivers on the St. Lawrence, ascended the St. Maurice river to height of land, thence by lake Mattagami and the Nottaway river to James Bay. This route was first used by the Algonquin Indians and their allies to avoid the Iroquois Indians on the St. Lawrence.
To Fort Albany (at mouth of Albany river), renamed by French Fort Ste. Anne, also Fort Chichitouan, or Quichichouanne, the route led from Fort Nipigon at the outlet of Nipigon river, through lake Nipigon, the Ombabika river to the Ogoki river, a branch of the Albany river. Between Fort Nipigon on lake Superior and Fort Ste. Anne, four forts controlled the route. Another route was by Long Lake and the Kenogami river to Albany river.
The route from lake Superior to the far west began at Fort Kaministiquia at the mouth of the Kaministiquia river, followed the Kaministiquia route (see below) to Rainy Lake and Lake of the Woods, thence by the Winnipeg river to lake Winnipeg. Two routes from lake Winnipeg led to the Saskatchewan river: one traversed lake Winnipeg, the northern part of which was called by the French lake Bourbon, to the northern terminus of the lake, ascended the Grand Rapids to Cedar lake and thence to the forks of the Saskatchewan river. The second route ascended the Red river from lake Winnipeg to its junction with the Assiniboine, passing up the latter river to the portage leading to lake Manitoba at Fort la Reine, through lakes Manitoba and Winnipegosis to Cedar lake and thence westward by the Saskatchewan. The farthest west of all the French forts was Fort La Jonquière built in 1751 by de Niverville near the Rocky Mountains and generally thought to have been on the site of Calgary. It was never more than an outpost and was deserted before 1759.
Fort à la Corne near the forks of the Saskatchewan was the principal French depot of the far west.
Five chief routes led from the Great Lakes to the Mississippi river.
The first was from the south shore of lake Erie, at Presqu'Isle, on the site of the present city of Erie, to the_headwaters of the Alleghany river which joined the Ohio and thence to the Mississippi. Seven forts protected this route from Fort Presqu'Isle to Fort Duquesne (now Pittsburg), and a chain of forts guarded the Ohio and Mississippi rivers.
A second route led from the western end of lake Erie, where Toledo now stands, by the Maumee river to the head waters of the Wabash, which falls into the Ohio. This was a favourite route guarded by four forts.
A third route was from the southern end of lake Michigan at the site of Chicago, by the Des Plaines river to the Illinois river and thence to the Ohio. This was the route followed by La Salle in 1682 to the Mississippi.
At St. Joseph situated on the southeast shore of lake Michigan a fourth route led by the St. Joseph river to the Illinois river and by the Ohio to the Mississippi.
The fifth route led from the southern end of Green bay, on the west side of lake Michigan, by the Fox river and portage to the Wisconsin. By this route in 1678 Louis Jolliet and Father Marquette reached the Mississippi river.
The Kaministiquia route was first discovered by Jacques de Noyon in 1688, a trader from Trois Rivières, Quebec, who spent the winter of 1688 with the Indians on Lake of the Woods. The Kaministiquia river was first called Rivière des Assiniboines, then Trois Rivières. This was the old French route up to the time of the cession of Canada. After that time it was entirely forgotten for nearly 50 years until it was rediscovered by Roderick Mackenzie in 1798. After the conquest, the free traders and then the North West Company followed the Grande Portage route (see below) until after the recognition of the independence of the United States when the fact of its being on foreign territory led to the substitution of the original route by the Kaministiquia river. The N. W. Co. used the Grande Portage route from 1783 to 1802.
An account of De Noyon's route is found in a memorandum attached to a letter from De Vaudreuil and Begon to the Duke of Orleans 13th February 1717. The memorandum is dated November 12, 1716 and is as follows:
In coming out we enter the Kaministiquia river. We go up that river for 30 miles after which there is a portage of about 10 acres where we shoulder the canoes. After the portage there is a rapid about 30 miles long and from the said rapid there is a portage of 1 acre. Nine miles from said portage there is another one of 3 miles in length, called Dog portage, after which we enter a lake about 9 miles long to reach the same river Kaministiquia, which we follow for 45 miles. After which there is a portage of 3 miles and there is a lake without any outlet being in the middle of a swamp (i.e. the present C.P. Ry. station at Savanne). This lake is about 30 acres wide and is at height of land. At the end of this lake we have to portage through swamp for about 3 miles. Then we enter a river that is about 30 miles long and which goes down into Canoe lake. We cross this lake for some 18 miles to the right and enter a bay where we portage over a poplar point for about 3 acres. Thence we come upon a little river filled with wild oats and along which we travel for 3 days in canoes, making 50 miles a day. After that we come to a fall where there is about 1 acre of portage. At the end of this portage there is a rocky strait about 1 acre long which extends to the foot of Christinaux lake (i.e. Rainy lake or lake Takimamiwen (Cree) 300 miles from Kaministiquia). This lake is about 1500 miles around. We coast along the left bank for a distance of 24 miles, at the end of which the lake empties into and forms the river Takimamiwen, otherwise called Ouichichick by the Crees. For 8 days we go down that river for a distance of 240 miles without meeting any rapids (Rainy river). Six miles from the entrance of this river a little portage of about 1 acre must be made. On coming out of this river we enter the Lac des Isles, otherwise called by the Blackstone people Lake of the Assiniboines (Lake of the Woods). This lake on the south side is lined with barren expanses, while on the north side it is covered with all kinds of wood and fringed with islands. At the end of this lake is a river that flows into the Western sea according to Indian reports."
The following extract is from Roderick Mackenzie's Reminiscences in Masson vol. I, p. 46:
1798. On my trip from Grande Portage to Lac La Pluie, I met a family of Indians at the height of land and accidentally learned of a water route from lake Superior to lake La Pluie navigable for large canoes and would avoid the Grande Portage. Being acquainted with entrance of route I proceeded, reached a post of the Company and procured a guide to accompany me to Caministiquia, being the first to reach Grande Portage from Lac la Pluie by water route. It was used by the French formerly. After Peace of 1783 the Commissioners decided that the Grande Portage was on American Territory. In 1784 the Directors sent Umfreville to find a route through Nipigon to Winnipeg river which was reported impracticable. The French forts were destroyed by fire. A few vestiges were seen in 1798. In 1801 Caministiquia became Headquarters of North West Company and the Grande Portage was abandoned.
Kaministiquia means river of difficult entrance.
This route is shown on map in Hind's Expedition 1858 and described in vol. II, Appendix I, where a table is given showing lengths of all portages between Fort William and lake Winnipeg by Kaministiquia route. This route is also shown on Map of 1857 Report of Crown Lands, Toronto, as follows: Lake Superior, Kaministiquia river, Kakabeka Falls, Dog lake, Dog river, Prairie portage 3/4 mile, Height of Land lake, Shallow streams and swamps, Savanne river, Lac des Mille Lacs (Canoe lake). From Mille Lacs the route divides, (1) Baril lake, Cannibal lake, Dech, Brulé, French, Sturgeon lakes, Sturgeon (or Maligne) river, lake La Croix, Nequaugon or Pine lake, to Narrows (Vermilion river) or portage to Sand Point lake, Rainy lake, Rainy river, Lake of the woods, Rat Carrying Place to near Bonnet lake (avoiding rapids in Winnipeg river), fort Maurepas; (2) by portage around falls and rapids of river La Seine and many portages to Rainy Lake. At Mountain portage the North West Co. had a store house provisioned from New Fort (Fort William) as the river from this to Kaministiquia is shallow and full of rapids.
Grande Portage or Pigeon River route was first mentioned in a Memoir dated 1722 by an officer named Pachot who wrote that "the route thought most favourable to test was by way of a small river Nantokouagane about 7 leagues from Kaministigoya": This was the Pigeon river. Although the French did not follow this route regularly, they had evidently traversed it. It was the regular route of the North West Co. until 1802. The Grande Portage was quite hilly and was divided by the voyageurs into 16 posts or stops, 3 leagues from one navigation to the other. Fifteen days were required to cross the portage from lake Superior. This route is shown on map of 1857 Report of Crown Lands, Toronto, and a list of portages is given in Hind's Expedition Vol. II, Appendix XII page 427. The distance from Grande Portage to Lake of the Woods by Pigeon river route is 325 miles; by the Kaministiquia route 381 miles. The route was as follows: Grand Portage, Pigeon river, Partridge portage, Fowl portage, Fowl lake, Moose lake, Mountain lake, Watak lake, Rose lake, South lake, Gun Flint lake, Portages, Birch lake, Saganaga lake, Cypress lake, Knife lake, Carp lake, Basswood portage, Basswood lake, Portages, Crooked lake, Iron lake, Battle portage, La Croix lake, Namakan river (or Vermilion river and portage), Namakan lake, Portage, Rainy lake, Rainy river 50 miles to Lake of the Woods.
Alexander Henry (Senior) gives following data: "The Groseilles river (called also Grosseiliers, aux Groseilles, aux Tourtres, au Tourt river), portage du Perdrix at Falls, portage au Outarde, small lakes on height of land: Outarde, Moose, Mountain, Watab, Rose, Perche, Sagunac, Maligne or Sturgeon river, lake La Pluie."
The Pigeon river on Jeffery's Map 1762 is called the Natouagan or Grosillers river. By the Grande Portage it is 60 miles to height of land and the distance across the Grands Portage itself is 9 miles.
The Toronto Trail from lake Ontario to Georgian Bay via lakes Simcoe and Couchiching and Sturgeon river was an old Indian trail to avoid the long passage round by lakes Huron and Ontario. It was first crossed by Jean Péré in 1669 although Brulé may have crossed it earlier. La Salle returning from Montreal to Michilimackinac in 1680 followed this route.
Alexander Henry (Senior) crossed it in company of Indians 1764. The North West Company used this route to some extent as shorter than the Ottawa - Nipissing route to the west about 1800, employing sailing vessels on lake Ontario, and it was much travelled before the introduction of steam vessels on the lakes. Yonge Street was extended from Toronto (York) to lake Simcoe in 1794 by Governor Simcoe. The old Indian trail was followed and troops were employed in constructing the road.
Montreal to Fort Kaministiquia by Ottawa river.
The following portages are given by McKenzie in his General History of the Fur Trade in Mackenzie's Journal 1801, p. LXV. This was the regular route to the west followed for nearly two centuries by the French and their successors in the fur trade. It was controlled in the 17th century by the Algonquin Indians, excepting the Iroquois inroads from time to time.
Leave La Chine—St. Anne's 2 miles from western extremity of island Montreal—Portage to lake Two Mountains—Ottawa river 15 miles to rapids—Port de Chaudière 643 paces—second port de Chaudière 700 paces—Ottawa river 6 miles—Port. des Chenes 740 paces—Lac des Chaudières 30 miles—Port. des Chats 274 paces—Lac des Chats 18 miles to Grand Calumet—Port. du Fort 245 paces—Décharge des Sables 135 paces (décharge where goods only are carried)—Port. Mountain 385 paces—Décharge Derige 250 paces—Grand Calumet longest portage on route 2035 paces—Ottawa river 6 leagues to lake Coulonge—Allumettes décharge 342 paces—Port. des Allumettes 25 paces—Ottawa river 7 leagues to Deep river which is 36 miles long—Port. des Joachims first 926 paces, second 720 paces - Ottawa river 9 miles to river du Moine—4 leagues to décharge—Port. Roche Capitaine 797 paces—6 leagues to—Port. Two Rivers 820 paces—3 leagues to—Décharge de Trou 300 paces—Rapids Leveillier and Mattawan—36 miles to mouth Mattawa river (or Petite Rivière), 400 miles from Montreal.Mattawa river to lake Nipissing.
Port. Plein Champ 319 paces—Décharge de Rose 145 paces—Décharge de Campion 184 paces—Port. Grosse Roche 150 paces—Port. Paresseux 402 paces—Port. de Prairie 287 paces—Port. la Cave 100 paces—Port. de Talon 275 paces—Port. Pin de Musique 456 paces—Port. Mauvais de Musique (where many canoemen were killed)—Port. Turtle 83 paces—lake Turtle—Port. Height of Land 1513 paces—1 mile to next vase (muddy creek)—Portage 725 paces—riviére de la Vase to lake Nipissing—Swamp 2 miles to next vase (the last) 124 paces—6 miles to lake Nipissing (12 leagues long).Nipissing to Grande Portage
Lake Nipissing 12 leagues—rivière des Français 25 leagues to lake Huron—Port. des Pins 52 paces—Port de Feusille 36 paces—Portage Parisienne 100 paces—Portage Recolet 45 paces—Portage Petite Feusille 25 paces—lake Huron—50 leagues to river Tessalon—10 leagues to Détour—6 leagues to end island St. Joseph (40 miles to Michilimackinac) 50 miles to Falls Ste. Marie—160 leagues from Sault Ste. Marie to Fort Kaministiquia by way of north shore of lake Superior.
From Acadia to Quebec the ancient route followed the St. John river from the Bay of Fundy to mouth of the Madawaska river, ascending that river to lake Temiscouata and then by portage trail to the St. Lawrence following the present Old Lake Road to Notre Dame du Portage, then along the south shore to Quebec. This was the old Indian trail and was the customary line of communication in after years between Halifax and Quebec.
Along the north shore of the St. Lawrence from the Strait of Belle Isle to the vicinity of Montreal no fewer than twenty-six forts had been constructed by the French and several on the south shore. They were generally located at the mouths of rivers where trade was carried on with the Indians who descended from the interior of Labrador. These posts were also depots for seal and whale fisheries, some dating back to the early sixteenth century. They afforded protection also against the Esquimaux who inhabited the shores of the St. Lawrence and Labrador as far west as the Saguenay river up to the beginning of the eighteenth century and were very troublesome.
The names of these forts and armed posts from the Strait of Belle Isle to Three Rivers were: Baie Chateaux, Baie Rouge, Anse-au-Loup, Baie Forteau, St. Augustin, Baie Phelypeaux, Pontchartrain, Brest, Baie-de-Shécatica, Méchatina, Ha! Ha! Baie, Musquarro, Naskapis, Natashquan, Nepiochibou, Mingan, Sept Isles, Godbout, Manicouagan, Isle Jérémie, Bondésir, Tadoussac, Malbaye, Lorette, Québec, Trois Rivières. Many of these posts were located in the King's Domain and one or two in the seigniory of Mingan.
The King's Domain (Domaine du Roy), known also as Postes du Roi, and Traite de Tadoussac, was the ancient Indian kingdom of Saguenay extending eastward from the Saguenay river to the Cormorant Islands near Anticosti, being bounded on the east by the seigniory of Mingan and on the north and north-west by the height of land and lake Mistassini. No exact bounds were given to the Domaine du Roy until 1733. The Indians considered their kingdom Saguenay to extend from the Saguenay river to the lakes emptied by the Hamilton river and from the St. Lawrence to lake Mistassini and adjoining lakes. The posts established in the King's Domain were maintained at the King's cost and all profits were credited to the King, but Bougainville makes the statement that many of the King's posts were not profitable and were maintained at a loss to the king only for preserving the regard of the Indians.
In 1630 the coast for four leagues on each side of the post of Brest on the Strait of Belle Isle was granted to the Sieur de Courtemanche who had married a daughter of King Henry IV. In 1702 the grant to Courtemanche was extended to his heirs to include all the territory between Hamilton Inlet and the town of Brest.
In 1658 a lease of exclusive privileges was granted by the King of France to Sieur Demaure. This was known as the Traite de Tadoussac (trade of Tadoussac) and the word Traite occurs in this grant for the first time. (Note: The word traite unaccented signifies trade. The accented word means treaty. These two words have been much confused by writers on the King's Domain. Traite occurs in Grant to Demaure 1658, Grant to Courtemanche 1630, and in numerous later acts and grants. Thus, "Arret du Conseil d'Etat du Roi qui accorde à la Compagnie des Indes Occidentales le quart des Castors, le dixième des Orignaux, et la traite de Tadoussac." 8 April 1666. Vid: Edits et Ordonnances &c. Vol. 1 pg. 43 (published 1803) also Act 1733 vol. II pg. 87.)
The territory granted in the lease to Demaure 1658 was known as the King's Domain and extended from the Ile aux Coudres at Les Eboulements to Cape Cormorans below the Seven Isles and near the mouth of the Moisy river and north to the headwaters of the rivers draining into the St. Lawrence. This includes lakes St. John and Mistassini. The trading posts established in this Domain were known as Postes du Roi. The lease to Demaure of 1658 passed to the Compagnie des Postes du Roi about 1700 and was renewed every twenty-one years.
The seigniory of Mingan was granted to François Bissot, Sieur de la Rivière, in 1661. It extended from cape Cormorant (the eastern limit of the King's Domain) ninety leagues to the Goynish river.
In 1733 an Ordinance on the boundaries of the King's Domain issued at Quebec by the Intendant Hocquart (Edits et Ordonnances &c. Vol. II pg. 87) gives the boundaries of the King's Domain as above and includes the territory "behind lake Mistassini as far as Hudson's Bay" and mentions several posts in the interior showing that the traders were well established. These posts as given in the Ordinance were: Tadoussac, Checoutimy, Lac St. Jean, Nekoubau, Mistassinoc, Papinachois, Naskapis, Rivière Moisy, Sept Isles, Malbaye, Bondésir, Islet de Jérémie, Bersiamites and Choumonthouane. The ordinance also mentions "the ancient establishments where trade was formerly carried on and of which there remain some vestiges." Some of these old posts had been constructed half a century earlier. Until the Iroquois had been subdued and transportation to the Great Lakes became safe, the fur trade of the French was chiefly confined to the Labrador peninsula and to the country north of the St. Lawrence. After the cession of Canada, the lease of the King's Domain was continued in the same manner by the English Government. Murray Bay,which was originally part of the King's Domain, was in 1762 granted by General Murray to Major Nairn and Lieutenant Fraser, but they were restricted from trading with the Indians.
In 1765 the British Government granted to Dunn & Co. a monopoly of the Indian trade at the King's posts. "These King's posts chief of which was Tadoussac, at the mouth of the Saguenay, were the trading posts that had been held by the French monarch as monopolies of the Crown. The revenue from them, either as the result of direct trade by the King's agents, or more commonly from farming them to the highest bidders, had always gone to the colonial treasury. The British Government, in this respect, merely followed the example of the French and endeavoured to collect most of the taxes and feudal dues which had been levied under the old régime." (Canada and Its Provinces vol. IV, p. 534).
About the year 1788, the North West Company acquired from the British Government a lease of the King's Domain and the King's posts at £1000 per annum. Upon the union of this Company with the Hudson's Bay Company in 1821, the lease passed to the latter Company. It was renewed in 1842 and finally expired by limitation in 1859. Under the control of these companies many trading posts were established in the interior and although the records of these early adventurers are lost, they undoubtedly explored all the chief river routes between Hamilton Inlet and James Bay.
A description of the King's posts in the King's Domain is given by James McKenzie who visited them in 1808. It will be found in Masson's Les Bourgeois de la Cie. N. W. vol. I & II.
There were many other forts rated as King's posts and situated in the lake region and the Mississippi valley. These are noted in the numerical list of forts below.
|St. François||Petit Nation|
|De l'Assomption||Sault St. Louis|
|Lac des Deux Montagnes||Long Sault|
|Les Cèdres||St. Regis|
|De la Présentation||Levis|
|St. Jean||Ste. Thérèse|
|La Boulaye||New Orleans|
|Sauvage||Sault Ste. Marie|
|St. Pierre||St. Charles|
|Lower Neepawi||A la Corne|
|Des Français||St. Germain|
|Baie Phelypeaux||Ha! Ha! Baie|
It is not to be understood that the forts and posts enumerated above were all existent at one period, for many had been destroyed before the cession of Canada. The list is intended to include all the French forts which had been constructed at any time as far as ascertained by the writer.
Freedom of trade and boldness of enterprise in Canada began with the fishermen of France. Wherever opportunity offered they traded with the Indians for furs, at that time steadily rising in price. The fur trade soon proved exceptionally profitable and attracted independent adventurers. Tadoussac, at the mouth of the Saguenay, commanded the fur trade of the northern and western regions and became the chief post and centre of trade with the Indians. In time the centre of the trade moved west to Trois Rivières and LaChine.
From the time of Cartier the port of St. Malo kept up a constant trade with Tadoussac. Several of Cartier's relatives were among the chief traders. Court favourites were constantly intriguing to obtain special monopolies of trade. The first monopoly of trade was given to Roberval January 1540. In 1598 this monopoly passed to the Marquis de la Roche.
The monopoly of the colonial trade was passed rapidly from one hand to another until it came into the possession of Pierre du Guast, Sieur de Monts, in 1599. In 1604 under privilege of the monopoly he seized a number of free vessels engaged in trade, thus producing a great outcry among the Norman and Breton merchants.
De Monts' monopoly was rescinded in 1607 and afterwards renewed to 1609. From 1609 to 1612 trade of the St. Lawrence was free to people of France and of the colony.
In 1612 the Company of Rouen and St. Malo, commonly known as Champlain's Company, was established. Under its privileges the colonists were not allowed to trade with the Indians. In 1620 this company's charter was cancelled and a new company organized by Guillaume de Caen and his nephew Emery de Caen, merchants of Rouen, succeeded to the trading privileges in 1621. This Company was known as the Company of Montmorency. Their trading monopoly was cancelled in 1622 and suppressed.
The Company of New France, otherwise known as the Company of the Hundred Associates (Compagnie des Cent Associés) was established April 29, 1627, under Richelieu. All trade was forbidden except through the Company and all furs obtained by colonists from the Indians had to be handed over to the Company.
In 1640 the Company of Notre Dame de Montreal obtained from the Company of new France the northeastern portion of the island of Montreal and founded the city of Montreal in 1642. From that time the control of a portion of the fur trade passed to Montreal, which became the base for outfitting and departure of exploring expeditions.
The Company of New France in 1645 agreed to transfer its trade monopoly to the inhabitants of the colony and the Compagnie des Habitants was then formed. It was this company which first employed brandy as an article of trade with the Indians.
In 1663 the powers and privileges of the old Company of new France passed to the king and Canada became a Royal Province under the sovereign Council.
Under Calbert the Compagnie des Indes Occidentales (West India Company) was established May 28, 1664, and was granted forty years a complete monopoly of all commerce in the colony. This company did not prosper and became bankrupt in eight years. Its powers were revoked by the King, December 1674, and trade was thrown open to all colonists and people of France.
The tax on furs and the monopoly of the trade at Tadoussac was then farmed to Nicholas Oudiette & Cie. Special licenses were issued to certain persons to trade with the Indians but in 1676 these licenses were revoked. In 1682 licenses were again adopted.
In 1676 the Compagnie du Nord (Company of the North) was founded, six years after the Hudson's Bay Co. Their trade with the Hudson Bay Indians was not lucrative owing to the difficulty and expense of overland traffic and they were unable to transport their furs by vessel through Hudson strait to Montreal owing to English opposition. In 1713 the Treaty of Utrecht was signed and the Hudson bay territory passed under British control.
For some time beaver and moose taxes were farmed out to individuals and corporations. In 1700 this system was abolished but soon after resumed and a La Rochelle Company, the chief partners in which were Sieurs Aubert, Néret and Gayot, obtained in 1701 and held for twelve years a complete monopoly of the trade in beaver skins until the Treaty of Utrecht 1713.
In 1717 this Company was merged in a new corporation known as the Company of the West (Compagnie d'Occident). In 1719 all the colonial companies of France were merged in this company and the name was changed to Company of the Indies. This Company carried on the beaver monopoly of Canada until after the time of the conquest.
|1598||De la Roche|
|1599||de Monts, rescinded 1607, renewed to 1609|
|1609||to 1612 trade was free|
|1621||Compagnie de Montmorency|
|1627|| Compagnie de la
(One hundred Associates)
|1645||Compagnie des Habitants|
|1663||Company's privileges revoked|
|1664||Compagnie des Indes Occidentales to 1674|
|1676||Compagnie du Nord|
|1701||La Rochelle company|
|1717||Compagnie d'Occident to cession of Canada.|
The fur trade of the French was carried on for more than a century in the face of strenuous opposition by the Iroquois and other tribes forming the Confederation in New York state who endeavoured to secure the monopoly of trade north of the St. Lawrence in favour of the English at Albany and New York. It was not until 1701, when peace was effected between the French and Iroquois, that the St. Lawrence trade route could be followed by the French in comparative safety. It was this rivalry in the fur trade that instigated the Iroquois to exterminate the Hurons, the Neutrals, Tobacco Nation, and other northern tribes. With relentless fury the Iroquois in 1660 penetrated as far north as the sources of the Ottawa river and in 1661 the Mohawks raided north of lake St. John.
The War of the Boundary Lines, the final struggle between France and England for the possession of New France, began in 1755 and ended in 1760 with the surrender of Montreal (Treaty of 1763).
During this war all the French officers and soldiers were withdrawn from the forts in the far west for the defence of Canada and were used to increase the garrisons in the front lines. The western forts were practically deserted in 1756 excepting for a few traders, voyageurs and coureurs-des-bois who continued for a time to live with the Indians. Many of the garrisons in the smaller forts in the Mississippi valley and adjoining country to the north were concentrated in fewer forts. In some instances forts were destroyed by their garrisons when vacated.The following forts were surrendered to the British in 1760-1761:-
|Miami on the Maumee.|
|Ouatanon on the Wabash.|
|Schlosser, near Niagara Falls.|
|Presqu'Isle, south shore lake Erie.|
|Le Boeuf south of Presqu'Isle.|
|Duquesne (afterwards called Fort Pitt).|
|Sault Ste. Marie.|
|L'Arbre Croche, east shore lake Michigan.|
|St. Joseph, near south-east shore lake Michigan.|
|Chartres, on Mississippi near mouth Missouri river.|
This fort was not surrendered until 1765.
In the confusion immediately following the cession of Canada and the change of Governments, the vast region west of lake Superior, partly explored by the French, was neglected for a time. This was due in large measure to the revolt of the Indians under Pontiac who in 1763 seized the western posts and were not subdued for nearly a year. A period of three or four years elapsed before any Englishman ventured among the Indians, and it was during Pontiac's war and the next succeeding year or two that many of the western forts and posts were destroyed by the Indians. Not till 1771 could British traders safely traffic as far west as the Saskatchewan river, the Indians bringing their furs meanwhile to the Hudson's Bay Company forts on Hudson and James bays. The following forts were captured by Pontiac and their garrisons in many instances massacred:
|St. Joseph||"||May 25,||"|
|Le Boeuf||"||June 18,||"|
|L'Arbre Croche|| abandoned|
|Sault Ste. Marie|| was partially|
|Ligonier and Pitt||repulsed the |
| in June|
|Detroit|| held out until |
For twenty years after the cession of Canada the inland trade was in the hands of private adventurers who in 1783, tired of rivalry, united to form the North-West Fur Trading Company with headquarters in Montreal.
The trade began in 1766 from Michilimackinac to the Kaministiquia river and in 1767 to Grande Portage. The post of Michilimackinac was the central point of commerce of the different merchants of Canada who were not attached to the North West Company, both before and after its formation.
Thomas Curry and James Finlay were the first Englishmen who entered the west after the conquest of Canada. The former with guides and interpreters reached Fort Bourbon at the west end of Cedar lake in 1766. Finlay in 1767 ascended the Saskatchewan and built a trading post at the site of Lower Fort Nipawee, one of the farthest west of the French establishments on the Saskatchewan, which probably had been destroyed about 1763 by the Indians in Pontiac's rebellion. Other traders were reported to have penetrated in 1767 as far as La Reine on the Assiniboine.
These meagre details are all that may be gathered as to the first trading expeditions west of lake Superior after the cession of Canada.
Alexander Henry, a native of New Jersey and known as the "Elder" to distinguish him from his nephew, was one of the first English traders to venture into the west. He left Montreal in 1761 on a trading expedition to Michilimackinac where he barely escaped death in the Indian massacre at that fort on June 4th, 1763, under Pontiac. In 1775 he travelled by way of the Grande Portage to the west. At lake Winnipeg he met Peter Pond, who had gone into the west in 1768, and the two Frobishers. The combined party of traders pursued their way westward to The Pas and Cumberland House, built in the previous year by Samuel Hearne for the Hudson's Bay Company.
Henry and the Frobishers built a substantial fort on Beaver lake and wintered there 1775-1776. Henry then proceeded to Fort des Prairies (à la Corne) where he met James Finlay, passing on the way Finlay's House built on site of the old fort Nipawi (i. e. Lower Nipawi). He proceeded further west in the company of Assiniboine Indians and then returned to his fort on Beaver Lake.
In April 1776 Thomas Frobisher erected a fort on the Churchill, called Fort du Traite from trade made with Indians at that place. He reached the Churchill by way of Frog portage. The winter of 1776-1777 he passed on the west shore of Ile-à-la-Crosse lake where Ile-à-la-Crosse House was afterwards built.
Peter Pond in 1778, after some of the free traders had pooled their resources, acted as their agent and built a post, known as The Old Establishment, about 30 miles above the mouth of the Athabaska river.
The route to the west from Montreal which the Free Traders followed was the old French route by the Ottawa river, lake Nipissing and lake Huron to Michilimackinac. Thence they proceeded by the south shore of lake Superior to the Grande Portage via the Pigeon river to Rainy lake and the West. The Free Traders never travelled by the old French Kaministiquia route.
The route from Lake of the Woods followed the Winnipeg river from Rat Portage for about 100 miles when it turned sharply to the right; followed the main branch known as the Pinawa, until it rejoined the main stream at Bonnet lake, thus avoiding the portages on this portion of the Winnipeg river.
|Port Arthur's landing 4 miles from Kaministiquia river.|
|To lake Shebandowan.|
|Fifteen mile Shanty.|
|Kaministiquia river crossed 6 miles from 15 mile Shanty.|
|Matawan to Shebandowan 20 miles.|
|Canoes for 380 miles (by tow line from launch.)|
|Portage 3/4 mile to lake Kashaboine.|
|Lake Kashaboine 10 miles.|
|Lac des Mille Lacs (height of land) 22 miles long.|
|Lake Baril 8 miles.|
|River to lake Windegoostigwan 15 miles.|
|Portage 2 miles.|
|Lake Kaogassikok 16 miles.|
|Two portages, Pine and Deux Rivières, 2 miles between.|
|Maligne river, 7 rapids and portage.|
|Island portage after 32 mile paddle.|
|Lake Nequaquon 24 miles.|
|5 mile paddle.|
|Creek to lake Nameukan.|
|18 miles and 2 portages to Rainy lake.|
|Fort Frances, west end Rainy lake, 45 miles.|
|Fifteen Mile House (from fort Frances.)|
|Fort Frances 2 miles down Rainy river from lake.|
|Rainy river 80 miles.|
|Manitou rapids 25 miles from Fort Frances.|
|Sault rapids 30 [miles from Fort Frances.]|
|Lake of the Woods, traverse 10 miles.|
|North west angle, whence road to Fort Garry.|
|80 miles North West Angle to Oak Point by road.|
|White Birch river, 30 miles from North West Angle.|
|White Mud river 17 miles.|
|Oak Point 33 miles and 30 miles east of Fort Garry.|
|Red river to Fort Garry.|
|Total 530 miles. 45 miles by land at beginning &|
|110 at end and 350 miles by lakes.|
|The Dawson route.|
The route west from Montreal by the Great Lakes was not followed before 1785. After the introduction of sailing vessels on the Great Lakes, cargoes were brought up from Montreal by canoes and large skiffs to Fort Frontenac (Kingston), then loaded on sailing vessels for York or Niagara. From York the cargoes were transported north by the old Indian trail via lake Simcoe to Georgian Bay. From Niagara portage on lake Erie cargoes were reshipped in sailing vessels for Detroit.
In 1787 it was estimated that three-fifths of the western trade was conducted by the Ottawa river and two-fifths by the Great Lakes. The Indian trade to the west was by way of the Ottawa river and heavier freight service by the lake route after the American revolution.
Under the Free Traders, followed by the North West Company and X. Y. Company, the trade in furs rapidly expanded. There was no international competition such as had existed between the French in Montreal and the English in New York. The American revolution caused the dispersion of the Five Nations' confederacy in New York state and the fur trade in the United States was confined to their own territory. The only competition in the fur trade in Canada was between the old Hudson's Bay Company and the Free Traders and their successors. The following extract is from Winterbotham's Historical View of the United States and of European settlements in America, published in 1795: -
"About the year 1773 the Canadian traders from Montreal ... had become so numerous and indefatigable at the head of the rivers which lead to the Hudson's Bay Company settlements that trade of the latter was in a great measure cut off. The Indians being supplied with everything at their own doors had no occasion to paddle several hundred miles to the Company's forts."
After the cession of Canada, free trade with the Indians led to the universal employment of liquor and this practice in turn caused the demoralization of the Indians and produced lawlessness, fraud and conflict among the numerous traders who went out in search of the Indians.
The great scourge of smallpox which raged throughout the west and north from 1780 to 1782 practically ruined the fur trade during that period and was a disaster which changed the whole history of the western Indians.
|1778.||Alexander Henry Sr., Thomas Frobisher, and others created a community of interests and conducted business on a co-operative basis. Peter Pond acted as their agent in the northwest and established himself at Lake Athabaska.|
|1783.||The North West Company was established by merchants of Montreal. Henry and the Frobishers were partners.|
|1784.||Pangman, Gregory, McLeod and McKenzie formed a separate company known as the Pangman Co. This resulted in intense rivalry and conflict and increased demoralization of the Indians through liquor supplied by the traders.|
|1787.||Both companies united under the name North-West Company.|
|1795.||The X. Y. Co. was formed known also as the New North-West Company.|
|1803-04.||The X. Y. Co. united with the North-West Company.|
|1767.||Finlay built a trading post at the site of Lower Fort Nipawee.|
|1772.||Frobisher built a trading post on Cumberland lake.|
|1773.||Finlay House built by Finlay on Saskatchewan river on site of old French fort Nipawi.|
|1774.||Frobisher Fort built by Frobisher on the Red River two or three leagues above Rivière aux Morts, before 1774.|
|1775.||Pond's fort built by Pond at the northwest corner of lake Dauphin—Pond wintered there 1775-6.|
|1775.||Henry and Frobisher built substantial fort on Beaver lake (lake Aux Castors). There were 43 men in the fort. It was a commodious fort with buildings round a quadrangle.|
|1776.||Frobisher built a fort on the Churchill river (which he called the English river) about 190 miles from Cumberland House and 750 miles from Hudson Bay. Called Fort du Traite.|
|1776-7.||Frobisher built trading post on west shore of Isle-à-la-Crosse lake.|
|1778.||Pond built the "Old Establishment" on the Athabaska river about 30 miles from lake Athabaska.|
|1811.||Henry House built by Alexander Henry Jr. on Athabaska river at junction of Miette and Athabaska facing Yellowhead Pass. This was destroyed after two or three years.|
|?||Adhemar's Fort, 6 miles east of Portage-la-Prairie.|
The combination of free-traders on a cooperative basis in 1775-1778 resulted in the formation of the North West Company in 1783 with headquarters at Montreal, in which Alexander Henry the elder, and Joseph and Thomas Frobisher became partners.
The phenomenal success of the company was due in large measure to overcoming the competitive rival companies and to destroying opportunities for profits in competition.
The Pangman Company, established in 1784, was absorbed by the North West Co. in 1787. The X. Y. Company was founded in 1795 by several partners of the North West Co. led by Alexander Mackenzie. After some years of intense rivalry, this company was likewise absorbed by the North West Co. in 1804.
The Astoria Company, called also the Pacific Fur Company, was founded by John Jacob Astor, June 23, 1810, and sold out to the North West Co. in 1813. Fort Astoria, built by this Company in 1811, was sold to the North West Co. October 1813 and renamed Fort George.
The American Fur Company was organized by John Jacob Astor 1809. In 1811 he bought out the Michilimackinac Company and merged it and the American Fur Co. into the Southwest Company. This company he suspended in 1812 and it was dissolved in 1816.
The chief fur trading companies after the French regime, exclusive of the Hudson's Bay Co., were the North West Co., Pacific Fur Co., American Fur Co., Missouri Fur Co., Russian-American Co., and Alaska Commercial Co.
Intense rivalry and conflict between these companies had exerted the most disastrous influence upon the Indians who became demoralized through the use of cheap liquor.
Great rivalry continuously existed between the North West Co. and Hudson's Bay Company from the year 1773 to 1821, when coalition was effected between the companies (March 26, 1821.)
The North West Company's methods were always extremely aggressive and frequently unscrupulous. The great object in view was the procuring of furs by any means possible. It is said that "for secrecy of action, hard, shrewd efficiency, and complete unity of purpose, the North West Company was perhaps the most effective commercial organization that had ever arisen in the new world".
For some years the chief trade of Canada consisted in furs and in 1803 it was said that "every person of eminence in Canada was then engaged in the fur trade".
The North West Company extended its trading operations not only over Canada from Labrador to the Pacific and far north to the Arctic regions, but it also carried on operations as far south as the mouth of the Ohio river. It maintained several establishments south of the 49th parallel of north latitude, in the lower Columbia and Snake river valleys and in the Red river and upper Mississippi valleys. Trade was also carried out with the Missouri Indians, Mandans &c, but the North West Company abandoned this trade in 1807.
To the pursuit of furs the North West Company added extensive explorations. The French were explorers first and traders almost incidentally, but the Montreal merchants were fur-seekers always and explorers secondly. The French explorers were followed by the fur traders, but the North West Company men were traders and explorers. In their trading ventures they explored the Red and Assiniboine rivers to their headwaters; they traced the entire course of the Saskatchewan; they discovered the Frog and Methye portages, which brought them to the northwest and the Arctic; they followed the Churchill, Athabaska and Peace rivers to their sources and the Fraser and Columbia to the Pacific; they discovered passes through the Rockies and followed the Slave and Mackenzie rivers to the Arctic.
Four men of the North west Company are especially noted for explorations, namely, Alexander Mackenzie the first white man to cross the mountains and reach the Pacific 1792-3, adding later to his fame by following the Mackenzie river to the Arctic; Simon Fraser, first to explore the Fraser river to the ocean 1806-7; David Thompson, who traversed the Columbia to its mouth; and Duncan McGillivray who discovered Howes Pass.
The route of the "Northwesters" from Montreal to the west at first was by the Ottawa river route, but after about 1800, Yonge street having been constructed in 1794, they diverted their cargoes from the Ottawa to the St. Lawrence, proceeding to lake Ontario and thence by Yonge street to lake Simcoe and Georgian Bay. Six weeks were required for the trip from Montreal to Grand Portage. The canoes travelled in brigades of eight or ten with nine men in each canoe.
Names of the portages between Montreal and lake Winnipeg are given in the list following.
The severity of the voyageurs' lives has been frequently noted. The continual exposure was detrimental to health. There was little shelter from storms and the men generally slept in the open. They were in constant debt to the Company and often unable to discharge the debt, resulting in a system of virtual slavery. In 1791 it is said that 900 employees of the Company owed it more than the wages of ten or fifteen years' engagement.
Lord Selkirk's endeavour to found a colony in the Red river valley (1808-11) encountered strenuous opposition from the North West Company who organized an armed campaign against the settlers and Lord Selkirk. This opposition was one of the factors which brought about amalgamation with the Hudson's Bay Company in 1821.
In a report of the North West Company in 1802, statistics were given of twenty departments in Canada, containing 105 trading posts. In addition to these the Company had twelve posts in the United States and also the King's posts on the lower St. Lawrence, numbering probably a dozen or more, which the Company leased in 1802 at one thousand pounds per annum.
A description of the King's posts in the Domaine du Roy was given in James Mckenzie's journal of his trip from Quebec to these posts in 1808. It is found in R. L. Masson's les Bourgeois de la Compagnie Nord-Ouest, vol. I, pp. 66. Several of the smaller King's posts were discontinued by the North West Company. A list of the King's posts is given in De Bougainville's memoir in Pierre Margry's Relations 1867.
In 1815 the North West Company withdrew its posts in the Mackenzie river district and reduced the number of posts in Athabaska from fifteen to eight.The headquarters of the North West Company were located at Montreal. Fort William, after the abandonment of the Grand Portage route in 1801-02, and the rediscovery of the old French Kaministiquia route, became the headquarters of the entire trade of the North West Company from lake Superior west to the Pacific. Trade in the territory west of the Rocky Mountains was virtually in complete control of the North West Company, as the Hudson's Bay Company did not seriously enter the country until after amalgamation in 1821.
The original charter of the Hudson's Bay Company was granted by King Charles II in 1670 to "The Governor and Company of Adventurers of England, trading into Hudson's Bay". This was the corporate title of the Company until coalition with the North West Company in 1821, when the present title, "The Hudson's Bay Company" was adopted. The Company had been generally known by the latter title from the time of the French regime.
The struggle between the French and the English for possessions of the fur trade of the north and west, terminating in the Treaty of Utrecht 1713 and the cession of Canada 1763, has been treated in Chapter I.
After the French regime ceased, 1760, the Hudson's Bay Company encountered a fierce and growing competition with free traders and organized fur companies, until in 1821 the chief rival, the North West Company, was absorbed by the Hudson's Bay Company. Competition still survived with individual traders and gradually other fur companies were organized, but the trade was almost exclusively in the hands of the Hudson's Bay Company until the surrender of its territorial rights in 1869.
The Company did not seriously enter the field of trade west of the Rocky Mountains while the North West Company existed as a separate body. In 1821 the Hudson's Bay Company obtained a license granting exclusive privilege of trading in such parts of North America as were not part of the territories granted in the original charter. This covered the Pacific slope (known as New Caledonia) and also the North West Territories under the general name of Indian Country.
This license expired in 1842, but on appeal from the Company in 1837 for renewal, an extension was granted in 1838 for a further term of twenty-one years, terminating in 1859.
Vancouver Island was granted to the Company in 1849 for the purpose of trade and colonization. In 1859 this grant expired and Vancouver Island became a Crown Colony. The presence of the Hudson's Bay Company in New Caledonia, a portion of the Oregon Territory, and its practical administration of government and economic affairs, contributed in large measure to saving that part of Canada for the British Crown.
After the coalition of the North West Company and the Hudson's Bay Company in 1821, many of the fur-trading posts which had been duplicated by both companies during the period of commercial rivalry, were now discontinued and several unnecessary posts were closed.
After the settlement of the International Boundary dispute, the Hudson's Bay Company submitted claims for the value of their forts and posts located south of the international boundary line.
In 1869 the Company surrendered to the Crown its territorial rights under the charter, reserving certain blocks and parcels of land adjoining its posts and certain blocks in future townships. The surrendered territory, known as Rupert's Land and the North West Territory, was acquired by the Dominion of Canada upon payment of ** $300,000, to the Company.
The first of the Company's interior forts was built in 1741, about 150 miles up the river Albany and was called Henley House. It was erected to prevent encroachments of the French. Two other posts were built between 1740 and 1760, Split Lake House on Split lake, an enlargement of the Nelson river about 140 miles from Fort Nelson, and Nelson House on Footprint lake a tributary of the Churchill river.
The fourth of the interior forts was built by Hearne on Sturgeon lake in 1774 and was called Cumberland House. After the erection of Cumberland House the Company built no interior forts until after the North West Company was formed in 1783. Many forts were erected at strategic places between 1784 and 1810, both rival Companies building establishments often contiguous.
|1.||Governor Charles Bailey, resided at Fort Charles; established a post at Nelson river 1670.|
|2.||Governor William Lyddal at Fort Albany 1674.|
|3.||Governor John Nixon of Rupert's river.|
|4.||Governor John Bridger at Fort Nelson 1682|
|5.||Governor Captain Abraham 1684.|
|6.||Governor John Nixon recalled from Ft. Albany 1683 and Henry Sergeant (Seargent) appointed. He removed the chief factory from Rupert's river to Albany river.|
|7.||Governor Geyer at Ft. Nelson 1690.|
|8.||Governor Forrest at Ft. Nelson 1694.|
On east shore of lake Abitibi at mouth of Abitibi river. Originally built by De Troyes in 1686, who built a small stockaded fort of logs near entrance to lake, on direct route of Iberville in his expedition from Montreal 1686 against the Hudson's Bay Company forts on James Bay by way of the Ottawa river. This fort was regularly operated by the French from 1686 to 1763 and all their trade with James Bay to the Treaty of Utrecht 1714, and, after that Treaty, their local trade, passed through this fort for a period of 77 years. Memoire de Begon, October 20, 1725, "qui explique les anciennes limites du posts de Temiscamingue", states that Abitibi was the most advanced station of the French towards Hudson Bay. Bougainville in his list of forts 1757 says, "A post dependent on Temiscaming, 120 leagues from that post, towards Hudson Bay. There are 100 men in the two posts. They (the natives) live by fishing and hunting—they never sow anything and have no village. All the country is mountainous and little fertile." Was situated on a long flat point projecting into lake at extreme eastern end. Shown on all the early and late maps, such as Bellin's map 1755 (No.93) and Del'Isle 1700 (No. 94).
A second fort was located on the S. W. shore of the Narrows at the end of a long peninsula commanding entrance to Lower lake Abitibi, about 30 miles distant from the first fort. It was built by the French before 1688 and is shown as Maison Française on Jaillot's map 1695 No. 117. Franquelin's 1688, and De l'Isle's 1703 (No. 18).
After the recall of the French troops about 1760, both the Abitibi forts were occupied for short periods by freetraders, but the Hudson's Bay Company was established in the first of the forts at the east end before 1774, and it became an important outpost of Moose Factory after 1783. At first all supplies for this post were brought from Moose Factory up the Abitibi river, but for some years before 1890 they were taken up the Ottawa. Both forts were operated by the Compagnie du Nord in 1695. The free traders in the second fort at the Narrows were succeeded by the North West Company about 1783 which operated the fort until the union of the two companies in 1821, when the Hudson's Bay Co. took over this fort. In 1783 the Hudson's Bay Co. built the first Frederick House at the confluence of the Abitibi and Frederick House rivers to compete with the free traders established in the old French fort at the narrows. In 1794-96 the Hudson's Bay Co. built a "good house at Abitibi", and rebuilt the old De Troyes fort.
This post has been in continuous operation for more than 200 years. After construction of the Transcontinental railway in 1914, Abitibi post was discontinued and superseded by La Sarre, a small station on the railway nearby, the furs being shipped by rail to Montreal and not sent by canoe to Moose Factory as formerly.
Both forts are shown on Geological Survey Map of 1901 "Lake Abitibi Region", No. 71.
The Hudson Bay Co. house adjoining the North West Co. house called Rocky Mountain House, on North Saskatchewan river near mouth of Clearwater river. Name Acton House was give to distinguish it from the North West Co. house, but it was generally called Rocky Mt. House. Shown on Devine Map of North West Canada 1857 No. 12.
The Hudson's Bay Co. in 1840 operated a small post at Aillik on the Labrador coast, about 150 miles from Rigolet. This post seems to have been operated until 1877 and reopened in 1891. Shown on White's map 1926 Forts on Labrador peninsula, No. 24.
Hudson's Bay Co. post in delta of Mackenzie river at junction of Peel and West channels. A recent post. Shown on Map Mackenzie river Dept. Interior 1924. (No. 25).
See fort Toulouse
Old historic French fort on Saskatchewan river, about 12 miles air line below the Forks, on south side of river, close to mouth Payoenan Creek, about centre of Tp. 48, R. xx, W. of 2d Meridian. Originally built by La Vérendrye 1748, who named it Fort St. Louis. It was rebuilt by his successor in the old French company Legardeur de St. Pierre in 1753 who renamed it Fort à la Corne. Tyrrell gives its location as "about the north-east corner of the Hudson's Bay Co. reserve", and he noted that traces of the old trails and stockades were still visible in 1896. In 1755 Hendry of the Hudson's Bay Co. stopped there and it was then occupied by six men for the French company. It was deserted for some time after the cession of Canada, although in operation in 1763. Cocking of the Hudson's Bay Co. found it deserted in 1772 except for an Indian camp. James Finlay in 1776 occupied it. A. Henry Sr. in 1776 also stopped there and speaks of "a considerable establishment, about an acre of ground, enclosed by stockade and having 50 to 80 men attached" (under James Finlay). The old fort was occupied by the North West Co. and rebuilt by them in 1797 and called Fort St. Louis. It was also known as Upper Neepawa, Des Prairies, and Des Trembles. It was abandoned by the North West Co. in 1805 (reason unknown). The site was unoccupied till 1846-8 when the Hudson's Bay Co. rebuilt on the site of the old fort and renamed it Fort à la Corne. In 1887 it was moved three miles upstream to present location. This fort was one of the oldest and most continuously occupied of the establishments in the west. It is mentioned in Bougainville's List and there named "Des Prairies". Alex. Henry Sr. passing in 1808 speaks of remains of the old French fort St. Louis in a low bottom on the south side "where some years ago were still to be seen remains of agricultural implements and carriage-wheels."
Hudson's Bay Co. fort on south shore of Albany Island at mouth Albany river. (Map Northern Ontario, Wilson) No. 52. Built by Governor Sergeant 1783-4 [sic]. [Transcriber's Note: 1683-84?] It was a large fort with four bastions. Captured by French 1686 and renamed by them Fort Ste. Anne, (Map No. 93) or Fort Chechouan (Chichitouan, Chechewan, Quichechouanne) Map No. 18. Retaken by the English 1689; by the French again in 1692; by the English in 1693; by the French 1695; and was finally surrendered to the English on 2nd August 1696. The French again attacked in 1704 but were repulsed. This was the only fort held by the Hudson's Bay Co. after the Treaty of Ryswick (May 1697) to Treaty of Utrecht 1713. It has been continuously operated by the Hudson's Bay Co. from 1696 to date. Shown on Bellin's map 1755, No. 93.
Small Hudson's Bay Co. house, outpost of Berens River fort. Built before 1850 (about 1830). It was not included among the forts named in the Company list 1869 nor on later lists. This outpost has been shown in various localities. Arrowsmith map 1854 places it on a branch of Berens river. A map of 1851 shows it on Family lake. Map in Hind's Expedition 1858 shows it at north end of a small lake about 50 miles S. E. of Family lake. Shown on Arrowsmith 1832 (No. 101).
Hudson's Bay Co. fort on North Saskatchewan river about 42 miles from Carlton house, site of the present town Prince Albert. It was built about 1865 and was included in the Company's list 1869. Closed about 1885. Pierre de la Vérendrye is said to have established a post at Prince Albert on one of the islands. The Indians had chosen this spot as one of their rallying points. In 1866 Rev. James Nesbit founded here the mission of Prince Albert for Indians. Fort Albert was the second name given to Fort Victoria (q.v.) on Vancouver Island.
H. B. Co. fort on Winnipeg river about three miles from mouth on left bank. Built 1792, near site of old French fort Maurepas. In 1800 the Hudson's Bay Co. and the North West Co. had forts only a few rods apart. The present fort Alexander was built on site of the North West Co. fort. After the coalition of the two companies in 1821, the majority of shipments of the Hudson's Bay Co. passed through Norway House to York Factory and the route through Fort Alexander to Fort William was scarcely used. The trade at Fort Alexander rapidly declined. The North West Co. fort was built in 1792 by Toussaint Lesieur (Le Sieurs) a few miles below and opposite the old French fort Maurepas, which had been abandoned about 1745. The North West Co. fort was known as "Bas de la rivière"(q.v.) and "Sieur's fort." The Hudson's Bay Co. fort was also called Winnipeg Lake fort and the North West Co. fort was called Winnipeg River fort.
Hudson's Bay Co. fort on Fraser river B. C. near mouth of Quesnel river. Built 1821 not far from the North West Co. Alexandria, which it superseded. It was an important depot for northern posts. The first fort stood on the left side of the Fraser river. In 1836 this fort was moved to west side. Shown on H. B. C map 1857, (No. 8) also on 1832 (No. 101) & 1850 (No. 100). Appears on 1872 list last and was probably closed about 1880.
North West Co. fort on west side of Assiniboine river near source of Swan river, in Section 27, Tp. 32, R. 3, West of 2nd Meridian, about 5 miles upstream from Fort Pelly. It was 256 feet long and 196 feet wide. Built in 1780. Attacked by Indians 1782. Was strengthened in 1801 and abandoned in 1805. Harmon was there in 1800 and makes note of the fort being well built and plastered. It is shown on David Thompson's map 1812 (No. 7) and Map of Harmon's Journal (No. 2). It was originally called Fort Tremblant and Poplar Fort but the name was changed in honour of Sir Alexander Mackenzie.
North West Co. fort on Fraser river, B. C., about 20 miles above Soda Creek. Built 1800-5. It was located at the farthest point on Fraser river reached by Mackenzie before turning back to continue west to Pacific ocean. It is shown on Rinfret map (No. 3). This fort was abandoned at the time of coalition 1821, and was not taken over by the Hudson's Bay Co.
Hudson's Bay Co. fort on Anderson river, about 150 miles east of Mackenzie delta and 100 miles from mouth of Anderson river. Built 1857. Was abandoned 1866-7 after scarlet fever plague had decimated the Indians of that region. Shown on map of Northern Canada (No. 35) marked "abandoned".
An old French trading post on lower St. Lawrence north shore, established before 1710, on strait of Belle Isle. A King's post. Was in territory granted to Courtemanche 1630 and extended 1702. In 1748 Galissoniere and Bigot granted the Anse-au-Loup concession to Joseph Deschenaux for 9 years. This concession was ratified by the King to run from 1749 to 1756. After the cession of Canada this post was leased by the North West Co. 1788. It was not long operated by the Company and was not acquired by the Hudson's Bay Co. Shown on Rinfret map Gulf St. Lawrence (No. 67) and White's map of Labrador posts (No. 24).
French fishing post on lower St. Lawrence sold to Wm. Grant 1804 and again sold 1808 by Sheriff of Quebec. (Map 24).
French trading post on lower St. Lawrence near Blanc Sablon post. Built about 1752. In 1750 Jonquière and Bigot granted the concession to Taché for 9 years. In 1751 it was granted to Michael Fortier for 6 years. In 1752 Brouague claimed Anse Ste. Claire as included within the limits of his concession. In 1754 it was declared to be in the limits of Baye Phelypeaux concession. In 1761 Governor Murray granted the seal fishery concession from 2 leagues west of Belsamont to 2 leagues east of Anse Ste. Claire for 3 years. In 1804 it was sold to Grant. (Map No. 24).
Old French fort at western end of Anticosti; probably at present port Menier. Shown on La Hontan map 1703 (No. 20) as "Magazin Fortifiet", also on Carver Map Quebec 1763 (No. 70). Anticosti was granted to Sieur Joliette in 1697.
Hudson's Bay Co. post on left bank of Mackenzie river at mouth of Arctic Red river (right bank) at Lower Ramparts. It is a recent post established about 1900. Shown on Map Mackenzie river (No. 25).
French military fort on Arkansas river, 3 leagues from mouth. On south side Arkansas river and West bank Mississippi river, at the junction. Built 1685. A mission and fort for Arkansas Indians. Shown on maps No. 93-96-100.
North West Co. fort on left bank of Souris river near mouth Plum Creek, a tributary of Souris river. Was located 16½ miles south and 39 miles west of McDonnell's House, probably near or opposite the present village of Souris, Manitoba. It was an outpost of Assiniboine House about 45 miles distant. Built 1795 and abandoned 1796. Thompson Journal December 1797 says, "had to be given up from its being too open to incursions of Sioux Indians". In July 1806 Alexander Henry Jr. visited the site of Ash House on his journey to the Mandan Indians. Was on the direct route to the Mandan villages. It was known also as Fort de la Frenier (Ash tree).
Originally a King's post in Domaine du Roy, on river Ashuapmuchouan about 90 miles above the mouth, on the shore of lake Chigobiche an enlargement of the river. Built 1690. Was on route from lake St. John to James Bay as travelled by Father Albanel 1672. Was operated by French up to time of cession 1760. Leased by North West Co. with other King's posts 1788. James McKenzie of North West Co. visited the King's posts 1808 and says in his description of this post: "It is 60 leagues from lake St. John on a small lake of the same name. A poor shabby post. There is a route from hence to river St. Maurice by small lakes and rivers". It is shown on Laure's map 1732 and Bowen and Gibson's map 1772 (White). In 1825 it was operated by King's Posts Co. In 1831 the Hudson's Bay Co. acquired lease of this and other King's posts. It is shown on Arrowsmith map 1848. Was closed before 1871. The name means "Watch Moose Deer" and is variously spelled Assuapmousoin, Chamuchuan, and Chamouthouane. Shown on White's Map of Labrador posts (No. 24) and La Rouge 1755 (No.112) & Bellin 1744 (No. 95).
North West Co. small post on east bank of Assiniboine river about 51°30'N. & 102°W., few miles above "Aspin rivulet". Shown on D. Thompson's map 1812, (No. 7) Aspin river shown on map of Assiniboia 18 (No. 38). The same as Grant's House q.v.
Hudson's Bay Co. fort on Athabaska river at confluence of Freeman creek on north bank, about 114°45'W., shown on map northwest Territories 1894 (No. 37) as "in ruins", also on map northern Canada 1907 (No. 34), also Devine map Crown Lands 1857 (No. 8) and appears on the 1857, 1869, and 1872 lists of forts. Probably closed about 1880.
North West Co. fort on north side Assiniboine river 2 miles above mouth of Souris river, in N. E. Quarter of Sect. 19, Tp. 8, R. 16 W. of principal meridian, 3 miles north of Banting on southwest branch of C. P. R'y. It was first built on north side of river before 1794 to compete with Hudson's Bay Co. post Brandon House. At this time there were 5 opposing trading posts at this place. John McDonnell in 1795 moved the fort to the south side Assiniboine river at the mouth of Souris river. It was about 50 miles from Montagne à la Bosse. This post declined after 1805 and was not continued after the coalition of 1821. A. Henry Jr. was there in 1806 and described the starving condition of the occupants, "no trade, no furs, no buffalo". Was an important post at first, from which all the North West Co. trade with the Mandans was carried on. Thompson was there in 1798. Remains of fort were seen by Tyrrell in 1890. Shown on Thompson's map 1812 (No. 7) and the British-Museum map 1817 (No. 9), also Map Mackenzie track Arrowsmith 1801 (No. 4). Various names have been given to this fort, Assiniboine House, Stone Indian River House, McDonnell's House, Fort Souris, Assiniboine River House, and Mouse River Fort.
Originally built by Pacific Fur Co. in 1811 at the mouth of Columbia river, site of present Astoria. Was purchased by North West Co. in October 1813 from Pacific Fur Co. and the name changed to Fort George. It was restored to the United States by Treaty of Ghent 1818. Was one of the forts for which the Hudson's Bay Co. claimed indemnity in 1865. Shown on Devine Map of Crown Lands 1857 (No. 12) and Blackie map North America 1845 (No. 22) also Arrowsmith No. 100 and 101. The site was changed by McLoughlin in 1824 to north side of Columbia river, 7 miles above the mouth of Willamette river, where a fort was erected 1825 and called Fort Vancouver. Five years later, 1830, another site was selected 1 mile west of the first fort and nearer the river. This was McLoughlin's headquarters. By the convention between the United states and Great Britain, Oct. 2, 1818, the Oregon Country was to be free and open to all for ten years joint occupancy. In 1827 the occupancy was made indefinite, but was terminated by the Treaty 1846 which defined the boundary as the 49th parallel. During the time of joint occupancy, the Hudson's Bay Co. established a new site for fort Astoria as above, acquired from the North West Co. Officers of the U. S Army took possession of the fort in 1849-50. It was sometimes called fort Clatsap (Map No. 101).
Built by Peter Pond in 1778 on west bank of Athabaska river about 30 miles from lake Athabaska. It was known as the "Old Establishment" or "Old Pond Fort" for years. It was the first and only fort in that region until 1785, when Fort Chipewyan was first built. For many years it was an important establishment of the North West Co. Thompson visited the post in 1804. It is shown on Rinfret map (No. 3) and Turner's map 1790 (No. 106). shows it on the east bank of the river.
Hudson's Bay Co. post at mouth of Attawapiscat river, James Bay, north bank. Established about 1900.
An old Hudson's Bay Co. post on lake Attawapiscat, headwaters of Attawapiscat river, about 50 miles north of Fort Hope. Was established about 1850 as an outpost of Fort Hope. Name has now been changed to Lansdowne House and new log buildings are being erected (1929) in Hudson's Bay Co. style. It is shown on McInnes' map of Keewatin 1903 (No. 54) as an old post.
Small North West Co. post on Ottawa river at Chat Falls, mentioned by Harmon 1800. It was probably a repair station on the canoe route between Montreal and lake Nipissing.
Six forts to be noted in neighborhood of city Edmonton, Alta.
(1) The first fort constructed was that of the North West Co., known as Fort Augustus, sometimes called Upper Fort Des Prairies, on Saskatchewan river, north bank, a little more than one mile above mouth of Sturgeon Creek, and about 20 miles air line east from present city Edmonton. Built by Shaw and McGillivray 1794. Shown on Thompson map 1810. Thompson was there in 1808 and A. Henry Jr. passed in 1809. Was destroyed 1807 by Blackfeet Indians.
(2) The second fort was built in 1795 by the Hudson's Bay Co. close beside fort Augustus and was named Fort Edmonton in compliment to John Pruden, clerk, a native of Edmonton, near London. It was built by George Sutherland. Was sometimes called Fort Des Prairies. This fort was destroyed by Blackfeet Indians at the same time as Fort Augustus.
Both these forts were the most western stations until 1799 when Rocky Mountain House was built 200 miles farther upstream.
(3) In 1808 New Fort Augustus was built by Hughes of the North West Co. on the site of the present city of Edmonton, 20 miles in a straight line upstream from old Fort Augustus. This fort was abandoned 1810 and destroyed by Blackfeet Indians.
(4) The same year, 1808, Rowland of Hudson's Bay Co. built New Fort Edmonton close by New Fort Augustus.
Both these forts were abandoned in 1810 and were re-established several miles further upstream at mouth of White Mud Creek and went by the name of Old Fort Whitemud and Upper Terre Blanche Fort (q.v.). In May 1811 A. Henry Jr. camped for the night at the nearly demolished Fort Augustus which had been abandoned 1810: "We pitched out tent inside the old House for the night".
(5) Fort Edmonton was again reoccupied and repaired by the Hudson Bay Co. some time before 1819. At first it was built on the river flats but later was moved to the top of the bluff and strongly re-enforced. Its defences were maintained till recent times because of hostile Indians. It was hexagonal in form with high pickets and bastions and battlemented gateways, on the perpendicular height commanding the river. "It was painted inside and out with Indian devices, gaudy colours and queer sculptures. The buildings were painted red and smeared with red earth which, when mixed with oil, produces a durable brown" (Sir George Simpson 1843). In 1912 the fort was removed to allow construction of Parliament buildings. See maps No. 8, 100 & 101.
(6) An X. Y. Co. fort was also built in the neighborhood in 1798 and 1810.
The site of old fort Augustus was marked by Historic Sites Board August 8, 1927. Inscription on the cairn reads: "On the river flat below stood Fort Augustus, established by the North West Co. in 1794; Fort Edmonton, established by the Hudson's Bay Co. 1795. Abandoned 1807".
North West Co. fort on Assiniboine river near present Brandon, on South side. It was attacked by the Indians 1780 and surrendered. A. Henry says that this fort was known in his time as Fort Des Prairies. Its location is shown on Map of Northwest Territories (No. 1) and on Rinfret's North West Territories (No. 3).
Alex. Henry Sr. says "this was the former name given to the French fort Des Prairies or Nepoin".
Hudson's Bay Co. fort at the north end of lake Babine, B. C. Built 1822 and in continuous operation ever since. It was famous for its salmon but poor as a fur trading station. It was sometimes called Kilmar's Fort. Was first built at base of the two arms at the north end. In 1836 it was moved 35 miles to the north end. Shown on Arrowsmith maps 1832 (No. 101) and 1850 (No. 100) 1857 (No. 8) and both locations on Map of Northern Canada (No. 35).
Old French trading post on Chateau Bay, Strait of Belle Isle, in the territory granted to Courtemanche 1630 and extended 1702. Built about 1740. Chateau Bay is shown on Harleyan map 1543. Jaques Cartier anchored there in 1534. In 1736 the concession was to granted to Bazil for 9 years to 1745. In 1749 it was regranted to Sieur Gaultier for 9 years. Bougainville gives Baye-des-Chateaux in his list of forts 1757. Sir Hugh Palliser ordered a fort to be constructed in 1767, plan of which was given in Gosling's Labrador p. 190. This fort was called Fort York and Chateau Bay was renamed York Bay. Cartwright in his journal 1770 says that the Government about 1765 erected a block house and small fort garrisoned by an officer and 20 men. In 1776 the garrison was withdrawn as unnecessary. Lease of Chateau Bay was acquired by North West Co. in 1788. The Hudson's Bay Co. does not seem to have leased this post. Captain Wemyss reported Septr. 1794: "At Temple Bay there are four forts, Fort Carlton, Fort Wallace at entrance, Fort Sheffield fronting Temple Bay, and Fort Charlotte. There are no fortifications on the coast of Labrador but at Temple Bay". These were all small wood block-houses. Temple Bay was contiguous to Chateau Bay, practically one bay. Shown on Low's map of Labrador S. E. (No. 61).
The original name of the Strait of Belle Isle was Strait of Baie Chateau. It was so called from a huge mass of basalt which caps an island in the bay, perpendicular cliffs like a Norman keep.
Early French trading post on north shore of lower St. Lawrence about 58°10'W. at port Jacques Cartier. This post is named in Bougainville list 1757 "Chichateka" and is generally known as Chicataka or Apetepy. It was a fishing and whaling station, about 25 miles east of St. Augustin. The concession was granted in 1738 for 10 years. In 1750 it was granted to Lafontaine de Belcour for 15 years. In 1761 Governor Murray granted the concession to Whale Fishing Co. for 3 years. It was sold by the Sheriff in 1808. Shown on map Gulf of St. Lawrence (No. 67) and White's map Labrador posts (No. 24).
French military fort at southern extremity of green Bay Wisconsin, on left bank of Fox river at the mouth. Built in 1670. The Chevalier de Tonti was in command 1680 and Sieur Du L'Hut in 1684. A Jesuit mission was maintained under Père Allowez St. Xavier in 1668, called Mission de St. François Xavier, whence the fort was sometimes named Fort St. Xavier, as on Jeffrey's map of 1762. The fort was reconstructed about 1718. Bougainville names it Fort Baye des Puants in his list of 1757 and says it was a King's post in command of M. De Rigaud. It was apparently abandoned when the French garrisons were concentrated about 1757 and is not included among the French forts surrendered to the English 1761-63. There was a settlement of French on the Fox river nearby. This fort was always centre of an extensive trade and commanded the route from Great Lakes by the Fox river to the Mississippi. A garrison was always maintained until the cession of Canada. Shown on Bellin's map 1744 Lakes of Canada (No. 15) and 1755 (No 93) and map showing French possessions 1756 (No. 10). On Palairet's map 1763 it is named Fort Sakisdac (No. 94)[sic] and Fort St. Xavier on No. 96.
Old French post on Forteau Bay, Strait of Belle Isle. Fort built 1710. It marked the eastern limit of the grant to Courtemanche 1630. Before 1630 the Basques had maintained there an establishment for whale fishery but were driven away by the Esquimaux. In 1716 the post was plundered by the Esquimaux. In 1748 the concession was granted for 9 years. The North West Co. acquired a lease of the post in 1788. Shown on Rinfret map of St. Lawrence (No. 67) and Low's map Labrador peninsula (No. 61). Does not appear to have been occupied by the Hudson's Bay Co.
Old French trading post and fort on Bay Rouge, Strait of Belle Isle, in territory granted to Courtemanche 1630 as extended 1702. Built before 1715. In 1719 a new fort was erected by Lessee Constantin. This was destroyed by Eskimo and again rebuilt by Constantin in 1721. Post was not occupied in 1735 temporarily, but in 1748 Constantin again operated the post. It was noted for seal fishery. North West Co. acquired the post by lease about 1788.
French fort on an island at mouth of Mississippi river built 1699. (Another 18 miles distant built in 1700). Shown on Bowen's map No. 97 (1763) & Palairet 1755 (No. 93) & Le Rouge 1755 (No. 111) & Mitchell 1755 No. 110.
North West Co. fort near mouth of Winnipeg river, on the south side, a short distance below and opposite the old French Maurepas which stood on the north side. Built by Toussaint Lesieur for the North West Co. in 1792. McDonnell in his journal 1794 names it Sieur's fort. Thompson 1796 calls it Winnipeg House, and it was known also as Winnipeg River House. Before fort Bas de la Rivière was built the North West Co. had a storehouse for provisions at Otter Point Rock across from the site of old Fort Maurepas, about 4 miles above the mouth of the river. Bas de la Rivière was built a mile or two further down the river. (A. Henry and D. Thompson Journals). Until the time of the coalition 1821 both the Hudson's Bay Co. and the North West Co. maintained forts at this place only a few rods apart. The present Hudson's Bay Co. establishment was built on the site of Fort Bas de la Rivière. This was probably one of the first posts built by the North West Co. west of Fort William and was an important station on the main canoe route. (See Fort Alexander).
A small North West Co. post named in the coalition list 1820. It stood on the north shore of lake Superior near the entrance of the lake from Sault Ste. Marie, about 25 miles north of Sault Ste. Marie. It is not included among the Hudson's Bay Co. posts. Was on main canoe route from Montreal to Fort William. Shown on Map of N. W. Co. posts 1817 (No. 5)
The present Battleford, Sask., on the North Saskatchewan river. About 1805 the North West Co. established a small post, also called Fort War Road near mouth of Battle river. The Hudson's Bay Co. had also established a post near by, on the north or left bank of the Saskatchewan above the mouth of the Battle river. The main Hudson's Bay Co. fort was probably built soon after the coalition of 1821. It lay in the centre of disaffection in the rebellion of 1885, Poundmaker residing in the region. The settlement was sacked and invested by the Indians until the arrival of troops. The fort was attacked and stores plundered. After the rebellion this fort was not re-established. It appears on the Hudson's Bay Co. lists of 1869 and 1872. The North West Co. post is shown on Thompson's map 1812 (No. 7) on the right bank of the Saskatchewan, north of the Battle river, and Hudson's Bay Co. reserve on map of Northwest Territories 1894 (No. 37)
Name sometimes given to Horse-shoe House, q.v.
French fortified settlement made in 1672 at head of Cumberland Bay on neck N.S. by Jacques Bourgeois and four other families from Port Royal. The French settlers on approach of English forces in 1750 all moved to Beauséjour. The English then erected Fort Lawrence on east side of Misseguash river, under Major Chas. Lawrence, on or near site of French settlement Beaubassin. It was evacuated and dismantled in 1756.
French military fort on lake Pepin, an enlargement of Mississippi river. Built 1727. It was maintained for some years as a missionary and trading post. It was deserted or destroyed before the cession of Canada.
French military fort on neck of Acadian peninsula on north bank Missiquash river. Built about 1750. Was captured by British 1755 under Col. Moncton and name changed to Fort Cumberland. Situated at head of Cumberland Bay. Shown on Carver Map 1778 (No. 19). & No. 97. Named after an early settler Laurent Chatillon Beauséjour. The fort was strengthened by Col. Moncton and a plan of it made by Col. Morse in 1764. In 1812 further repairs were made. Garrison was withdrawn after war of 1812 and fort declined. It is now a National Park.
Fortified trading post built by Henry and Frobisher on Beaver lake (lac aux Castors) in 1775 before formation of North West Co. north of Cumberland or Pine lake, on route to Churchill river. It was said to be a substantial and commodious fort, with buildings round a quadrangle and garrisoned by 43 men. Fort was soon abandoned for Cumberland lake.
Both North West Co. and Hudson's Bay Co. had established posts on Beaver lake before 1850. A small lake lying near source of Weenisk river, Ontario. Shown on Arrowsmith map 1857 (No. 8). An outpost of Fort Wapikopa.
French fort at mouth of Becancour river on right bank of St. Lawrence nearly opposite Three Rivers. Here there was a settlement of Abenakis Indians numbering 500 to 600. Named in Bougainville's list 1857.
Hudson's Bay Co. fort on northwest shore of Reindeer lake, built in 1796 by Thompson. It also went by the names Deer Lake House, Reindeer Lake House, or Caribou House. Here Thompson left the service of the Hudson's Bay Co. to enlist with the North West Co. 23d May, 1797. This fort was destroyed by the North West Co. in 1817. The Hudson's Bay Co. later built a fort on the north shore at the mouth of Cochran river which was named Lac du Brochet House and is still operated by the Company. The date of building not ascertained. Bedfont House is shown on Arrowsmith maps 1832 (No. 100), 1850 (No. 101) 1857 (No. 8) at northwest corner of Reindeer lake.
Another name for Fort McPherson.
Free trader's establishment near present Fort Pelly, between Swan and Assiniboine rivers, about 53°N. Mentioned by D. Thompson.
Hudson's Bay Co. post, site of present town of Bellingham, state of Washington, at outlet lake Whatcom, tributary of Strait of Georgia, about 34 miles south of New Westminster. Shown on map "The Company Territory" No. 6. Small post.
Old trading house on right bank Athabaska river near Old Red River House (present Fort Mackay) at or near mouth Muskeg river — probably an independent trader's house. Shown on Wallace map Early Alberta Forts (No. 11).
Hudson's Bay Co. post on east shore of lake Winnipeg at mouth of Berens river. Built before 1825 and operated to date. In 1825 the post was in charge of John Robertson. McLean in "Twenty-five years service" mentions it as a small post in 1833. Appears on Arrowsmith maps 1832 (No. 101), 1850 (No. 100) 1857 (No. 8). Named after Joseph Berens, Governor of Hudson's Bay Co. 1812 to 1822.
Old French trading post at mouth of Betsiamites river, north shore of lower St. Lawrence about 6 miles from Isle Jérémie. The present village and river are named Bersimis in White's Place names of Quebec, but are called Betsiamites on Government map of 1913. This post was distinct from Isle Jérémie. Both Betsiamites and Islet de Jérémie are given in the list of King's Posts in Ordinance 1733 of Intendant Hocquart. It is not included in Bougainville's list 1757, but is shown on Del'isle map 1703 (No. 18). It was probably an outpost of Isle Jérémie, the main post. In 1825 la Rocque enumerated Betsiamites as one of the King's Posts operated by the Hudson's Bay Co's. opponents. Isle Jérémie was operated by the Hudson's Bay Co. in 1858 Governor Simpson closed Isle Jérémie but maintained Bersimis. It has remained in operation to date. Shown on Rinfret map of Gulf of St. Lawrence (No. 67) and White's map of Labrador posts (No. 24).
Hudson's Bay Co. post on large island at outlet of Great Slave lake. Built by the Hudson's Bay Co. about 1830. The trade of this post was afterwards removed to Fort Providence, 40 miles down the Mackenzie river, about 1850.
Small Hudson's Bay Co. post on Big Island, at south end Lake of the Woods. It was established about 1865 and was included in the Deed of Surrender List 1869. It is included in the 1872 list. Was closed about 1880.
Hudson's Bay Co. post at southwest end of Big Lake, now Evan's lake, Quebec, source of Broadback river. Shown Arrowsmith map 1804, on Arrowsmith 1857 (No. 8), and White's map of Labrador Posts (No. 24). It was not included in the Company's list of 1821. Shown also on Arrowsmith map 1832 (No. 101).
French military fort built by Iberville in March 1699 on bay at mouth of Pascagoula river, about 50 miles west of Mobile Bay. It was called Fort Maurepas by Iberville. It was abandoned after the building of Mobile, about 1705. Shown on De Lisle's map 1719 (No. 32) also Bellin's map 1755 (No. 93) and Bowen's map 1763 (No. 98).
See Somerset House.
Hudson's Bay Co. fort on left bank Assiniboine river at mouth of Birdstail creek, about 12 miles below Fort Ellice. Established before 1850. Appears on Arrowsmith map 1857 (No. 8) but is not included in the Company's list of 1869. Probably discontinued about 1865. Shown on Devine map 1857 (No. 12) and Willson map (No. 6) & Arrowsmith 1832 (No. 101).
See Rocky Mountain House.
A small North West Co. post on Black (or Turnagain) river, branch of the Liard river. It is named in the North West Co. list of 1820. Probably of short duration and does not appear on lists after 1820.
A North West Co. post built by Blondin at west end of Lesser Slave Lake. Thompson visited the post 1803-4. This fort was probably known as the Lesser Slave Lake fort.
A free-trader's fort built in 1793 or 1797 on the Assiniboine river below Portage la Prairie.
North West Co. establishment at the Great Bend in Columbia river, at mouth of Canoe river on the east side of river. Built by Thompson Jan 1811. It was the rendez-vous for travel across the mountains by Athabaska pass. It was maintained up to time of building railway. It is shown on Arrowsmith map 1857 (No. 8) & on Johnston map of North West Territory 1877 [No. 16].
A North West Co. post on North Saskatchewan river above Blue Rapids, on west bank, about 10 miles below confluence of Brazeau river. Thompson visited the site of this abandoned post in 1810, where the North West Co. had been located for two years. It is shown on Tyrrell's map of Northern Alberta 1887, marked "site of", (No. 36) also on Wallace map of early Alberta forts (No. 11).
Hudson's Bay Co. fort on Snake river a few miles below Boisé river. It was built in 1835 and was stockaded. The Hudson's Bay Co. claimed indemnity from United States in 1865 for loss of this fort. See Oregon Territory. Shown on Arrowsmith map 1857 (No. 8) Its walls and bastions were of adobe brick and enclosed a number of houses &c. Three miles square around the fort was under cultivation by H. B. Co. Hostilities between U. S. and Indians 1855 caused abandonment of fort.
Fortified King's post in the Domain du Roi, located at mouth of Escumains river, probably identified by present named Cape Bondésir. It is given in decree Intendant Hocquart 1733. The name was probably discontinued after the cession of Canada and Portneuf or Mille Vaches used instead. It was built before 1732. Apparently was not operated by Hudson's Bay Co. Laure's map 1732 shows a post at Bondésir. Shown on White's map of Labrador peninsula (No. 24) and Low's map 1896 (No. 63). It was known as one of the King's posts in 1786. See Mille Vache and Portneuf.
French fort built before 1700, on right bank of Mississippi river near southern terminus of lake Pepin and near mouth of Chippewa river. Shown on DeLisle's map 1700 (No. 94) and 1703 (No. 18). Danville's map 1755 (No. 97) names it Fort Perrot.
List of French forts given in "Mémoire de Bougainville sur l'Etat de la Nouvelle France 1757", in Pierre Margry's Relations et Mémoires inedits pour servir à l'histoire de la France, etc., 1867 Paris, one vol., pages 39 to 84.
French fort on a small island dividing Cedar lake from Mud lake, now called Fort Island, at or near mouth Saskatchewan river. Built by Pierre Gaultier de Varennes, one of sons of Sieur de la Vérendrye, in 1741. It was destroyed before 1775. Is included in Bougainville's List 1757 and he locates it as being "150 leagues from St. Charles, at the entrance of lake Ouimpeg". The northern half of lake Winnipeg and Cedar lake was called lake Bourbon by Vérendrye, and Saskatchewan river he called the Pascoyac, and sometimes Rivière aux Biches (Deer). The Hudson's Bay Co. early had a fort on this lake, succeeding the French fort, called Cedar Lake House (q.v.), also a later post called Grand Rapids House (q.v.). The North West Co. operated a small post on this lake, which was abandoned 1802. Bourbon is shown on Bellin's map 1755 (No. 93) & Rocques 1763 (No. 96).
Name given by French to Fort Nelson after capture. See Fort Nelson.
See Fort Moose
North West Co. fort on north bank of Bow river at mouth of Old Fort creek, 115°W longitude, east of present Banff and about 50 miles west of site of old Fort Lajonquière. It was built about 1802 and closed about 1823 after the coalition of 1821. Shown on Rinfret's map of North West Territories (No. 3); and Wallace's map Early Alberta forts (No. 11), and Macoun's map of 1882, (No. 13).
North West Co. post near present city of Brandon. Built 1794. Operated to time of coalition 1821. There were five different trading posts in this locality 1794-5. Shown on Rinfret's map (No. 3), and Thompson's map 1812 (No. 7).
Hudson's Bay Co. fort on south side of Assiniboine river, 2 miles above mouth of Souris river, and about 17 miles below present city Brandon. Built 1794. It was burned 1814 and rebuilt. This was the chief Hudson's Bay Co. fort in that region for 20 years. It does not appear on the Company's lists later than 1856 and was probably closed about 1860 through failure of trade. Shown on Arrowsmith map 1857 (No. 8).
Ancient French fort and settlement on Old Fort Bay, (Baie du Vieux Fort), north shore, at western entrance Strait Belle Isle. It is called the "ancient harbour of Brest". Founded 1504. Frequented by Bretons 1500. Visited by Cartier 1534. Appears on a Portugese map of 1550 and on Desbien's map 1546 (No. 74). Was in the original grant to Courtemanche 1630. Shown also on Molyneux map 1598 (No. 75).
See fort La Jonquière.
Fortified post of Hudson's Bay Co. on Missinaibi river. Built 1744. this post was abandoned in 1790 and New Brunswick House was substituted, built 1788, at north end of Brunswick lake. The latter was operated until about 1900. Location of both forts shown on Devine map 1857 (No. 12), and Arrowsmith 1857 (No. 8) and 1832 No. 101 and White's map (No. 24). Brunswick House was situated on the north bank Missinaibi river near outlet of Opasatika river. New Brunswick house was nearly 100 miles further upstream.
See Island House
Hudson's Bay Co. trading post on north Saskatchewan river, on north bank opposite mouth of Buck Lake creek, 114°42'W., about 20 miles upstream from old White Mud fort. It is shown on Wallace map of early Alberta posts (No. 11). A small post not named on the Company lists.
Hudson's Bay Co. post on North Saskatchewan river 350 miles above Cumberland House and equal distance above the Forks (Tyrrell) and near the North West Co. Fort George. Built 1780 by Mitchell Oman. Abandoned 1801 in favour of Island Fort 18 miles farther up the river. Was in Section 19, Tp. 56, R. 5 West of 4th Meridian and 110°45'W. Thompson visited the post in 1793-4.
Hudson's Bay Co. post at head of Burntwood river, a tributary of Nelson river. Built before 1830. It is shown on Arrowsmith map 1832 (No. 101) and 1850 (No. 100) 1857 (No. 8) and on the Devine map 1857 (No. 12).
Hudson's Bay Co. established the post at Port Burwell in 1916. Shown on White's map 1926 (No. 24).
North West Co. post on south bank of Red Lake river, at mouth of Clearwater river, right bank of latter. Built by J.B. Cadotte for North West Co. 1797. Was visited by Thompson 1798. Situated opposite present town of Red Lake Falls. When A. Henry Jr. visited the place October 1800, only the remains were left. Location shown on Thompson map 1812 (No. 7).
French military fort on left bank of Mississippi river near confluence of Missouri river. It was one of the chain of French forts from Montreal to Gulf of Mexico. Shown on map of French claims 1756 (No. 10) & Danville 1755 (No. 97). At mouth of "Petite rivière des Cahokias" nearly opposite present St. Louis—also map 120.
One of the earliest French trading forts west of Montreal. At the mouth of the Nipigon river, left bank, at entrance to lake Nipigon from lake Superior. Built by Charles, Sieur de la Tourette, brother of Dulhut, in 1678 and named by him Camanistigoyan. This fort was entrepôt for the country between lake Superior and James Bay and for nearly a century was the headquarters of the French trade in that section, occupying for the French the same position of importance that Fort William was for the North West Co. It is shown on La Hontan map 1690 (No. 20) as Fort Kamanistigoyan at the mouth of Lemipissaki river. Lake Nipigon is variously named on early maps. On Danville's map it is called Alempissaki; on Jaillot map 1685, Alemenipigon, meaning "deep water"; Del'Isle's map [No. 18] 1703, Alemenipigon, also on Carver map [No. 19] 1778; and on La Hontan map 1690, Nemipigon. The next name given was lake St. Anne, shown on map of French claims 1756 (No. 10), on map 1817, on Arrowsmith 1854 [No. 77]. The fort was under command of Vérendrye in 1728 and a few outposts were maintained in the Nipigon country to the north. It is included in Bougainville's list 1756. After the cession of Canada the North West Co. took over this post and named it Fort Nipigon, but its importance was eclipsed by Fort William and at first, contrary to the French route, the fur traders followed the south shore of Lake Superior going to and from Fort William. The Hudson's Bay Co. succeeded to the post after the coalition 1821 and maintained it until about 1875. Grant in "Ocean to Ocean" 1872 speaks of the old Hudson's Bay Co. post at the mouth of Nipigon river. (Not to be confused with Fort Kaministiquia.) See Nipigon House. No record is found of the destruction of the original French fort.
See Fort Victoria (2).
An old French trading and fishing post on the eastern entrance Strait of Belle Isle. Built about 1735, and included in Bougainville's list of 1756. The concession was granted by Beauharnois and Hocquart in 1735 to Marsal for 9 years and extended for 6 years to 1750. In 1750 it was granted to Captain Bonne for 9 years by Jonquière and Bigot. In 1753 it was regranted to Marsal for 9 years, 1754 to 1763, by Duquesne and Bigot. In 1763, after the cession of Canada, Governor Murray granted it to William Brymer for 4 years. The location is shown on White's map, 1926 (No. 24).
A small establishment of the Hudson's Bay Co. on the cape at mouth of Columbia river for which the company claimed indemnity from the United States in 1865.
Hudson's Bay Co. post shown [on] Arrowsmith maps 1832, No. 101; 1850 No. 100; 1854 and 1857 (Nos. 8 & 77), on southeast shore of Nut lake, near source of Red Deer river, tributary to lake Winnipegoos. This was probably one of the early Swan River District forts. It was afterward moved to the small stream between Nut lake and Little Nut lake (Range XII & XI, Tp. 34). It is included in 1894 list of Hudson's Bay Co. forts and was mentioned in the 1892 Annual Report of Department of the Interior. It is sometimes called Nut Lake House and is shown on Johnston map 1894 (No. 37) (Capot is Copeau?)
North West Co. fort on west shore of Reindeer lake probably on Vermilion Point, in the vicinity of the Hudson's Bay Co. Bedfont House. Built before 1790. It was the first fort on Reindeer lake. The second fort built was the Hudson's Bay Co. Bedfont House, built 1796. Bedfont House was destroyed by the North West Co. in 1817. About 1800 the Hudson's Bay Co. built another fort at the outlet probably located on Sucker Point opposite Deep Bay which is marked "Old Post" on map. The present South Reindeer Lake House was built some time after the 1800 house and is located about 10 miles farther south on Big Island. It is variously called Fort Deer Lake, or South Reindeer Lake House, or Fort Carribeau, or Caribou. The location of Old Fort Caribou is shown on Rinfret map (No. 3). After the coalition of 1821 the Hudson's Bay Co. reopened Bedfont House and it is shown on Johnston map 1877 (No. 16). The North West Co. also maintained a post at the outlet shown on the 1817 map (No. 5). See Tyrrell's map 1897 (No. 41) and McInnes 1914 (No. 42) and Arrowsmith 1854 and 1857 (No. 77 & 8), also 1832 (No. 101) and 1850 (No. 100).
French fort on north bank of Ottawa or Grand river at foot of Long Sault rapids, opposite Fort De Long Sault on south bank, about 6 leagues (15 miles) from lake of Two Mountains. It was established for trade with passing Indians, Nipissings, Algonquins, and Iroquois. Was in command of M. D'Aillebout de Cuisy and is included in Bougainville List 1756.
The original name of Fort Ticonderoga, q. v.
Hudson's Bay Co. fort on North Saskatchewan river about 106°35'W. (In Tp. 45, R. IV, West of 3rd Meridian). It was considered half-way to Edmonton. Built 1787 on south side river. It was a substantial fort, surrounded by high palisades with a gallery armed with wall pieces surrounding the whole square and having square towers at each corner. The palisades were still standing in 1862, but it was in ruined condition by 1875. It was included in the Company list of 1872. During the rebellion of 1885 it was raided and apparently was discontinued soon after. It was principally a provision station supplying 300 bags of pemmican per annum. It was an important transportation centre in the days of the Red River cart. Goods for the north were brought here from Winnipeg and forwarded to Green lake and thence by water route north and west. A. Henry Jr. visited the fort 1808. It was also known as The Crossing Place and Fort du Monté. The North West Co. fort was known as Fort La Montée (which see.) and was one of their principal meat depots. Monté means mounting place, i. e. place where horses were taken to go overland, See maps No. 8, 3, and 13, 101 & 100. Sometimes called Carlton House.
Small fort at Temple Bay. See Fort Baie-Chateau.
Hudson's Bay Co. fort on upper waters of Assiniboine river, near confluence of Whitesand river (51°47'N.) west of headwaters of Swan river. Built 1790 and was the first Hudson's Bay Co. fort on the Assiniboine. Known as Carlton House and sometimes Fort Assiniboine. It is shown on map of Assiniboia 1811 (No. 38) also on map of Harmon's Journal (No. 2) and Arrowsmith 1801 (No. 4). A North West Co. fort, called Marlboro House was in the immediate neighborhood. In 1856-7 a new fort was built by Hon. W. J. Christie of Hudson's Bay Co. a short distance below Fort Carlton and the name was permanently changed from Fort Carlton to Fort Pelly. The old fort had stood on lower land about 500 yards distant where a low sandy ridge rises 6 feet above the general level of the valley bottom. Fort Pelly was situated on rising sandy ground on the east side of the river. It was a large well-built fort protected by a high fence or wall of sawn planks. Over the heavy gate in front was a stout bastion from the top of which a magnificent view of surrounding country was seen. It was a compact, well-ordered post, on route from Fort Garry to Fort Carlton on the Saskatchewan. Sheltered on north by woods, with the Assiniboine river in front. For many years after 1806, Fort Pelly was one of the main trading posts of the Hudson's Bay Co. Boats from 3 to 4 tons burden annually descended the Swan river carrying furs to York Factory, the proximity of which enabled the Company to trade goods among the Indians a month earlier than the North West Co. whose goods were transported from Montreal to Fort William and thence distributed. A short portage led from Fort Pelly to the Swan river. This fort was operated by the Hudson's Bay Co. for over 100 years, until about 1900. Location shown on Johnston map 1894 (No. 37) & Arrowsmith 1832 (No. 101).
Hudson's Bay Co. post on entrance to Sandwich Bay, Labrador, on east shore. Originally built by Capt. George Cartwright in spring of 1775. Is not included in Sir George Simpson's list 1857 but appears on the 1925 list. In 1873 the Hudson's Bay Co. purchased this and adjacent posts of Round Island, Gready Harbour, and Sandhill.
North West Co. fort on left bank of Mackenzie river at Old Fort Point about 60°40'N. half-way between Gravel river and Great Bear river. Built about 1810 or earlier. It is shown in Rinfret map (No. 3) and Mackenzie river maps 1924 (No. 25) & Laut map No. 1.
French military fort on the site of present Kingston, lake Ontario, built by Frontenac 1673 at mouth of Cataraqui river and called by him Fort Cataraqui. It was granted to La Salle 1675 for a fortified outpost and seigniory. It was originally a King's post and was erected for defence against the Iroquois and to intercept the Indians from trading with the English at Albany. The fort was dismantled and abandoned by Denonville 1689. In 1694 Frontenac re-established the fort and garrisoned it with 700 men, rebuilding it of stone with four bastions. Bougainville (1757) says that goods were brought from Montreal in canoes for Fort Cataraqui and were then loaded on sailing boats for Niagara. The second fort built by Frontenac in 1694 is generally known as Fort Frontenac. It was captured from the French in 1758 by Gen. Bradstreet and destroyed at that time. It is shown on La Hontan's map 1703 (No. 20) and on Del'Isle's map 1703 (No. 18) and Carver's map 1778 [No. 19].
The first post on Cat Lake seems to have been a North West Co. house near west end of the lake. Thomas Fawcett, D. L. S., in 1885 passed the site of this post which, he says, was 1½ miles west of the Hudson's Bay Co. post situated on the south shore near the eastern end. This H.B. Co. post was established about 1820 and appears on the lists of 1857, and 1925 & map of 1832 (No. 101).
The North West Co. post was built on or near the site of the old French Fort Bourbon in 1790 and was abandoned in 1802. The old French fort was destroyed in 1775, or a little earlier, and the Hudson's Bay Co. was almost immediately established in the locality. Their first post seems to have been built at the mouth of the Saskatchewan river below Grand Rapids and was called Grand Rapids House. In 1856 the Company built a fort, known as Cedar Lake House about half a mile below the main Cedar lake on the right, or west bank of the river. This fort is shown on the Johnston map 1877 (No. 16) and is included in all lists of the Hudson's Bay Co. posts to 1925. It was built to compete with free-traders from the Red river region. A description of these posts is given in Hind's Canadian Expedition. The Hudson's Bay Co. had also another post at the entrance of Cedar lake, west end, shown on Johnston map of 1894 (No. 37).
French fort at the southwestern extremity of lake Superior, called also Fort La Pointe, or Grand Pointe, from the long projecting point. Settlements were made here by Huron and Ottawa Indians after war with the Iroquois about 1650. The first mission was established by Menard 1660 and called Mission du Saint Esprit. The first fort was built by Radisson and Groseilliers 1661 on the shore of "Cheguamegon" bay. It was a palisaded fort situated not far from the present town Ashland, Wisconsin. Marquette was in command of this fort in 1668. It was probably destroyed by fire within a few years, for in 1692 Frontenac sent Sieur La Seneur to La Pointe to build a fort and garrison it. La Gardeur de St. Pierre was in command, followed by Linctot in 1726. This fort was built on the south end of Magdalen (Madeleine) island. Thirty soldiers formed the garrison. It was included in Bougainville's list of 1757 as "Pointe de Chagoamigon" under the command of M. de Beaubassin. This fort seems to have been destroyed at the conquest of Canada. For a number of years the fur-traders followed the south shore of lake Superior in going west and La Pointe became an important stopping-place. Alexander Henry Sr. was one of the first traders to venture west after the French had deserted the forts. In 1765-6 he built a house on the mainland sheltered by Madeleine island. He remarks that "on the island there had been a French trading post, called La Pointe du St. Esprit". The North West Co. soon acquired the possession of Grand Pointe, erecting a fort which appears on their list of 1821. It was not operated by the Hudson's Bay Co. after coalition, being on American territory. It is shown on Del'Isle's map 1745, on map of French claims (No. 10), on Bellin's 1744 map (No 15), on La Hontan 1703 (No. 20) also on Del'Isle 1703 (No. 18).
French military fort, 8 miles southeast of Montreal, on a promontory in river Richelieu. Built at first of wood with palisades 15 feet high, by Jacques de Chambly, in 1665, an officer in the Carignan regiment. It was designed as a defence against the Iroquois to the south. In 1709-11 it was rebuilt of stone, having been burned by Indians 1702. At first it was called Fort Pontchartrain de Chambly, and sometimes Fort St. Louis de Chambly. It was situated in the seigniory first granted to Pierre de Chambly 1672. It was surrendered to English forces 1760. Captured by Americans 1775. Retaken by British 1776. It stood at foot of large rapid in Richelieu river on left bank. It is now under supervision of National Parks Branch. Shown on map of French claims 1756 (No. 10) and No. 97.
Hudson's Bay Co. fort near present city of Salem, Oregon. It was a small establishment of one house. Was one of the posts for which Hudson's Bay Co. claimed indemnity from the United states. See Oregon Territory Forts.
North West Co. fort, 9 miles west of Grand Portage Bay, at the western end of the grand portage. Built 1799. Visited by Harmon 1800. It was established owing to difficulties of the long portage. Taken over by the Hudson's Bay Co. after coalition 1821. Shown on Arrowsmith map 1857 [No. 8].
Hudson's Bay Co. post on Charlton island, James Bay, a warehouse fortified. In 1631 Captain James wintered here and built a house. In 1680 the first depot was built, "a good, large, dry, substantial warehouse". It was constructed on the site of James' house, and was a supply depot for posts on James Bay. In 1684 a fort was ordered built. In 1686 the establishment was seized by the French and the Company abandoned the island. In 1808 agents of the North West Co. established a post on Charlton island which they soon abandoned. By the Treaty of Utrecht 1713 the Hudson's Bay Co. regained possession of their forts and reopened Charlton Depot; since which time it has been regularly operated by the Company.
See Fort La Tour.
Also called Fort de Chartres. French military fort on left bank Mississippi river, about 25 miles above the mouth of Kaskaskia river. Built 1717, it was the seat of government of the Illinois. In 1756, it was rebuilt, an irregular quadrangle with four bastions, of stone plastered. Walls were from 2 feet to 3 feet thick and 15 feet high, with loop-holes and port-holes, surrounding several enclosed buildings. Bougainville in his mémoire says that this fort was dependent on New Orleans. It was generally believed to be the best built of the interior French forts. It was the last of the old French forts to be surrendered to the British after the conquest, being surrendered in 1765. In 1772 the Mississippi river had undermined the west side and the wall fell. This fort together with Cahokia, Kaskaskia and St. Géneviève in the immediate neighborhood commanded the approach to the Illinois country by the Mississippi. It is shown on map of French claims 1756 (No. 10), on Bellin's 1755 (No. 93) and Danville 1755 (No. 97).
A small Hudson's Bay Co. post on Wintering lake, Nelson river and Grass river, on canoe route from Sipiwesk lake to Grass river. Was situated on long peninsula extending north into lake. David Thompson mentions the post 1792.
Originally a North West Co. post on South Branch of Saskatchewan river at mouth of Red Deer river, on north bank. Built 1791. It was abandoned 1804 and rebuilt in 1805 by John McDonald of the North West Co. and then called New Chesterfield House. In 1822, after the coalition of the two companies, the Hudson's Bay Co took over the North West Co. establishment and opened Chesterfield House under Donald McKenzie. It was abandoned after a few years on account of Indian troubles. It is shown on Arrowsmith maps 1832 (No. 101), 1850 (No. 100), 1854 (No. 77) and 1857 (No. 8) and is included in Company list of 1857, but not later. The X.Y. Co. also had a small post in the immediate neighborhood.
A French fortified post near the head of the Saguenay river, at the junction of the Saguenay and Chicoutimi rivers. It was one of the earliest of the King's posts, built in 1650 or earlier. A Jesuit chapel was erected 1670 at the post for the Indians. Later a second chapel was built 1707. The post is named in Bougainville's list 1757 as "Chueretimi". Oudiette, lessee of the Domaine du Roy, had built a post at "Chigoutimy" before 1683. Chicoutimi was included in the lease of the Traite de Tadoussac 1701. McKenzie, who visited the King's posts in interests of the North West Co. in 1808, states that a "store" had been built in 1707. It was included in a list of the King's posts 1720. An inventory of the goods was taken in 1750. Immediately after the cession of Canada, Dunn, Gray and Murray operated this post 1764. It was leased, together with other King's posts to the North West Co. 1788 and was operated by that Company to the coalition of 1821, when the Hudson's Bay Co. took over the post and maintained it until about 1870. It is possible that the great fire of 1870 destroyed the post and buildings. It is given in the Company list of 1857 and shown on Arrowsmith map 1857 (No. 8). Goods for the interior were brought here by schooners and boats and thence distributed by canoes.
Hudson's Bay Co. post on right bank of Chilcotin river at mouth of Chilko river branch of Fraser river B. C. Built about 1828. It was a small outpost shown on Arrowsmith maps 1832 (No. 101), 1850 (No. 100), 1857 (No. 8) and appears on the Company list 1872, but not later.
Hudson's Bay Co. post on right bank of Koksoak river near its outlet (about 25 miles) in Ungava Bay. In 1828 Hendry explored the lower Kakosoak and selected a site. In 1830 the fort was built by Finlayson and Wonderland for the Hudson's Bay Co. In 1842 it was abandoned through lack of trade, but was reopened in 1866. It is included in the Company list at Deed of Surrender Rupert's Land 1869, and is still in operation. Shown on White's map Labrador (No. 24) and Low's map 1896 (No. 64)
A small establishment of the Hudson's Bay Co. near mouth Columbia river. It was a station for salmon. Called also Pillar Rock. The Hudson's Bay Co. claimed indemnity from the United States for this post 1865. (See Oregon Territory).
North West Co. fort on Lake Athabaska. The first fort in this region was built by Peter Pond on Athabaska river about 30 miles above the outlet, on west side. Athabaska river and lake were called Elk river and Lake of the Hills. This fort was built in 1778 and was known as The Old Establishment and Athabaska House and Pond's House. Athabaska means "Meeting place of many waters." In 1788 Pond's fort was abandoned and a new fort built on south shore of lake Athabaska, about 8 miles from mouth of Athabaska river, 38 miles from the old fort, at the south-western end of the lake, on a rocky point projecting into the lake. This fort was built by Roderick Mackenzie of the North West Co. Fort Chipewyan was styled the "Emporium of the North" and "Little Athens of the Hyperborean regions". In 1804 this site was abandoned and a new fort (the third) was erected by the North West Co. on a rocky point on the north shore of the lake, the present site. The old fort on the south shore continued to be of use for some years, but in 1815 it was rapidly decaying and was finally abandoned in 1820. The new fort on the north shore was "surrounded by rocks and swamps". It was the most important North West Co. fort in the far north. After the coalition of 1821, the Hudson's Bay Co. operated this fort to the present date. Dr. Macoun described the fort in 1875 as follows: "All the buildings are of most substantial character, all shingled and whitewashed, and of imposing appearance. Two large stores with glass windows, each 63 ins. by 31 ins. by 17 ins.[sic] high, stand next the landing. Eight houses are occupied by employees of the Company. In the rear is the clerk's house, 40 X 30 X 17 ft., well plastered and warm. Then the general store and the Factor's house". The X. Y. Co. constructed a fort in 1800 one mile north of Fort Chipewyan near site of present R. C. Mission. The Hudson's Bay Co. built Nottingham house in 1802 and Fort Wedderburn in 1815. See Forts Athabaska, Nottingham, and Wedderburne; and Tyrrell's map Athabaska 1897 (No. 41) also Topographical Survey maps of Mackenzie river (No. 25) & Arrowsmith 1832 (No. 101). 1850 (No. 100), & 1857 (No. 8).
Another name for Fort Lac des Boeufs, which see.
Hudson's Bay Co. post on Chipewyan lake, Athabaska district. Established 1870. Shown on the Company map of posts 1924 (No. 39). 113°30'W - 56°57'N.
Hudson's Bay Co. fort at mouth of Churchill river. The first fort was built 1688 five miles up the river. Whale fishing was notable at that time. This fort was captured by the French 1689. In 1716 a second fort was built at mouth of river, made of wood. A third fort, the great fort known as Fort Prince of Wales, was constructed in 1734, on the point at entrance to Churchill Harbour. The walls were 37 to 42 feet thick at base and 6 feet 3 inches at top. The north and south sides of the fort were over 100 yards long. Walls were of cut stone and it was erected by Scotch masons brought over from Scotland for the purpose. This fort was captured and destroyed by the French under Admiral La Perouse in 1782, and the remains are now a Historic Memorial Site in charge of the Dominion Government. Some of the guns, of which there were forty, are lying on the ground. In 1784 an establishment was constructed on the present site, a few miles upstream from the old fort, and on site of the first original fort of 1688. It is situated in the midst of a barren rocky region without wood. Location of these forts shown on map of Churchill Harbour (No. 78). On Rocque's map 1763 (No. 96) & Del'Isle 1700 (No. 94).
See Fort Astoria.
Small Hudson's Bay Co. post on Clear Water lake (now called Teggau lake) few miles west of Eagle lake District of Kenora. It was noted on the 1869 and 1872 lists of posts. Map Northwestern Ontario (No. 79) shows location of lake.
Small Hudson's Bay Co. post on Coacoacho bay, lower St. Lawrence, about long. 60°15'W. This post was built before 1846, and abandoned about 1857. Shown on White's map Labrador posts (No. 24).
Small Hudson's Bay Co. outpost of Nelson House, on Cold Lake (now called Kississing Lake) about 75 miles southwest of Nelson House, tributary to the Churchill river. It appears on lists of 1869 and 1872. Location of lake on McInnes map (No. 42).
See Fort Vancouver.
Hudson's Bay Co. fort on Columbia river at Kettle Falls, State of Washington. It was a wooden fort of large size, enclosed with stockades and bastions. The buildings were made of cedar logs. Cultivated fields surrounded the fort. It was established in 1825, and of the Oregon country forts it was next in importance to Fort Vancouver. The Hudson's Bay Co. claimed indemnity from the United States for this fort. See "Oregon Territory". It is shown on Devine map 1857 (No. 12), Arrowsmith's maps 1857 (No. 8) and 1854 (No. 77) and Rinfret's (No. 3). Also on Map State of Washington (No. 80) & Arrowsmith 1832 (No. 101).
See Fort Mobile.
See Fort Wapikopa.
Hudson's Bay Co. fort at north end of Bear lake, B. C. near head of Skeena river. Built 1826 by Douglas. It was closed about 1900 and appears last on 1894 list. Originally built on an island. Shown on Rinfret's map (No. 3), on Devine map 1857 (No. 12) and Arrowsmith 1857 (No 8) and 1854 (No. 77) 1832 (No. 101). Sometimes spelt Connelly. Skeena river was called Simpson's river at first. See also map Northern Canada (No. 35).
Explorers fort built by Simpson and Dease for Franklin on Dease Bay at northeast end of Great Bear lake in 1837. It was a simple log house 40 feet long by 14 feet wide. This building was burned. It was rebuilt by Bell and Richardson 1848. The buildings were still in fair condition in 1898. No nails were used in the structure, but dove-tailing and wooden pegs. It was situated in a sheltered place protected by a large island. Its location is shown on Arrowsmith 1857 (No. 8) 1854 (No. 77) and map of Northern Canada (No. 35). On right bank at outlet of Dease river.
French trading post built 1715 on strait of Belle Isle west of Baie Rouge. Built by Constantin who obtained concession 31 March 1716 from the King. In 1732 Constantin leased his posts at Rivière des Français (this post), Baie Rouge, and Ste. Marie. In 1737 Constantin occupied this post and was protected from poachers in 1748. The post was not maintained after the cession of Canada. Rivière des Français is now called Pinware river and Ste. Marie is now Ste. Modeste. Shown on White's map Labrador posts (No. 24).
Hudson's Bay Co. fort on Atna or Copper river Alaska at mouth of Chitlyna river (Chitina). Probably site of present town Chitina. On American territory. Shown Arrowsmith map 1857 (No. 8) and 1854 (No. 77).
Ancient French post at the western extremity of Mingan Seigniory, probably established 1661 when the seigniory was granted. (See Mingan). In 1803 this post was leased by Grant, Stuart and Dunn to McTavish Frobisher & Co. (the North West Co.). On the expiration of the 1803 lease it was leased to the Hudson's Bay Co. The last reported operations known were in 1831. It was not included in Simpson's 1857 lease.
French fort on left bank of Ottawa river (north side) at mouth of Coulonge river, between Grand Calumet and Allumettes islands—stockaded fort erected about 1680 or earlier. The family of Louis d'Ailleboust, Sieur de Coulonge, traded with the Indians on the Ottawa river from 1670 to 1760 and erected several trading posts of which fort Coulonge was one. After the cession of Canada this post was deserted by the French. Alexander Henry Sr., one of the first free-traders, passed this fort 1761 and states that it was deserted at that time, "a trading fort surrounded by stockade, built by the French". Harmon was there 1800 and mentions the fort. It was soon operated by the North West Co., who rehabilitated many of the vacant French forts which had not been destroyed. The Hudson's Bay Co. after the coalition 1821 took over this fort and operated it until about 1865. It appears on the Arrowsmith map 1832 (No. 101), 1857 (No. 8) and 1854 (No. 77) but is not included among the Company lists later than 1869. It was visited by Governor Simpson in 1841 when on his famous trip. McLean in his "Twenty five years Service" speaks of being there in 1822-23.
Hudson's Bay Co. fort on left bank of Cowlitz river about 25 miles upstream and about 35 miles from Fort Vancouver. Built by Douglas 1837. It was a small establishment of one house. Was one of the posts for which the Hudson's Bay Co. claimed indemnity from the United States, 1865. Shown on Arrowsmith map 1857 (No. 8).
French fort built by La Salle in 1680 on left bank Illinois river about 60 miles from its junction with the Mississippi river. Means "broken hearted" and was so named by De La Salle. It was demolished in 1681. Rebuilt 1683 and then called Fort St. Louis. It was a league below Des Miamis and about 60 miles from mouth of river. Its location was site of Starved Rock, near Utica, Illinois. It is included in Bougainville's list 1756 under the name of Fort Pimiteoui. It is shown on map of French claims 1756 (No. 10) and on Del'Isle's maps 1700 (No. 94) and 1703 (No. 18). Henri de Tonty took command of Fort St. Louis 1683 and the post was granted to him and La Forest as a seigniory. Lake Pimiteoui is shown on Del'Isle's map 1700 as an enlargement of the Illinois river a few miles north of Fort St. Louis. Starved Rock was so named in memory of a band of Illinois who took refuge there and were starved to death while besieged by their enemies the Pottawattomies. Also on map No. 96.
French military fort at mouth of St. Francis river on the shore of lake St. Peter, at Notre Dame de Pierreville. It was erected 1687. It was the scene of battles 1689 and 1693. It guarded approach to Trois Rivières from the south.
The original French fort was called Fort St. Frédéric and was built under Marquis de Beauharnois 1725-26, on west bank near southern extremity of lake Champlain. It was one of the chain of forts extending from Montréal to mouth of the Mississippi river by the Great Lakes, Ohio and Mississippi rivers. Built to prevent intercourse and trade between Montréal and Albany and New York. It was destroyed by the French occupants under Bourlamaque about August 1st. 1759 before the advance of Amherst. It was then rebuilt by the English and called Fort Crown Point. Crown Point itself was called by the French "Pointe à la Chevelure", or Scalp Point. During the American revolution, Crown Point was captured by Seth Warner May 1775. It is shown on map of French claims 1756 (No. 10) and No. 97.
see Fort Beauséjour.
The first trading post on Cumberland lake was built by Joseph Frobisher 1772 free-trader at the time. Cumberland lake was then known as Pine Island lake, and Sturgeon lake. This fort was built for the purpose of intercepting the Indians going to Fort Nelson. It was built close to portage to Gull lake, not far from the site formerly occupied by the French Fort Pascoyac. It was a temporary structure and was soon replaced.
The second fort on Cumberland lake was built by Samuel Hearne for the Hudson's Bay Co. in 1774. It was called Cumberland House, situated at east end of the lake, near portage to Gull lake, where it leaves Cumberland lake. The name was given by Hearne in honour of Prince Rupert, Duke of Cumberland, first Governor of Hudson's Bay Co. This fort has always been maintained since 1774. It is the oldest post of Hudson's Bay Co. in the interior, for although Henley House, Split Lake House, and Nelson House, were built between 1740 and 1760, these posts are near the Bay and only nominally inland. It is a strategic point as two routes open thence to the interior, west and south by Saskatchewan river, northwest and north to the upper Churchill country. The Hudson's Bay Co. post was located about 500 yards from Frobisher's House of 1772, on the south shore, "on the Saskatchewan river at a spot where it is touched by Cumberland lake". It was built on an island at the southeast end of Pine Island lake, about 4 miles north of the Saskatchewan river, into which are three outlets from the lake, namely, Big Stone river immediately in the rear and west of the fort, Tearing river 4 miles to east, and Fishing Weir creek farther east. Pine island is made by the lake on the north, Saskatchewan river on south, Big Stone river on the west, and Tearing river on the east.
In 1780 the North West Co. constructed their new fort (also called Cumberland House or Station) about 100 yards from Hudson's Bay Co. and about 1¼ miles west of the first house built by Frobisher 1772. Henry Jr. was there in 1808 and describes it as being at the north end of this little river called Little English river, i.e. the Tearing river. This fort was sometimes called Fort Sturgeon Lake, but in general both Companies used the same name, Cumberland House. This was the first permanent post of the North West Co. on Cumberland lake and was maintained by them until the coalition 1821. In 1775, when Alexander Henry Sr. passed, there was only the Hudson's Bay Co. post, Frobisher's post of 1772 having disappeared.
There was also an X. Y. Co. post near by.
A free-trader's establishment at west end of Rocky Mountain Portage, Hudson's Hope or Rocky Mountain Portage Fort being at the east end. Harmon was there in 1810, and does not speak of Cust's house, simply "the northwest end of Rocky Mountain Portage". It was on the left bank of Peace river in the cañon 56°N—122°W. It is shown on map of Canada 35 miles to 1 inch, and Dawson map 1879 (No. 81). An old Hudson's Bay Co. post was located at west end of portage.
Hudson's Bay Co. post on Red river near Pembina. Built by Governor Macdonnell, Sept, 1812. Some say it was built by the Selkirk settlers 1812. It was named after Lord Selkirk, who was also Baron Daer. The North West Co. had a post near by, which was called Pembina house. The Hudson's Bay Co. fort was on west bank of Red river at mouth of Pembina river on north side, on the site of present town of Pembina. The Hudson's Bay Co. first appeared on the Red river in 1793 when McKay built alongside the N. W. Co. (Grant's House). See Fort Pembina. The North West Co. fort is shown on Thompson's map (No. 7) on south side of Pembina river.
Old French fort on northwest shore of lake Manitoba, called by the French Lac des Prairies. Built by the sons of Vérendrye 1741 at the portage to lake Winnipegosis, at the mouth of a small river now called Mossy river, and by the French "rivière des Biches", flowing from the west. The first fort was destroyed by the Indians, but the French rebuilt it in 1743. The last fort was probably destroyed when abandoned by the French at the cession of Canada. The site has been built upon several times. It was one of the oldest trading posts in the west. The site of Fort Dauphin was known to the Canadian traders who traversed this part of the country immediately after the cession of Canada. It was evidently no longer in existence when Pond and Henry travelled west in 1774. Its location is shown on map of French claims 1756 (No. 10) and Devine map 1857 (No. 12) also Bellin's map 1755 (No. 93).
Sometimes called Fort Dauphin. The first fort on Dauphin lake was built by Pond on the north shore 1775, where Pond spent the winter. It's location is shown on Pond's map 1785 (No. 82), marked "Pond Fort 1779", a more permanent structure than that of 1775. This fort was afterwards moved to south shore and to Ochre river a few miles south of the lake, under the operations of the North West Co., and the location is shown on Thompson's map (No. 7). After the coalition of 1821 the Hudson's Bay Co. took over this establishment and it is shown on their maps 1832 & 1857 (Arrowsmith No. 101 & No. 8) marked Dauphin Lake House. It was probably discontinued about 1870 and does not appear on the 1872 list of posts. The first Hudson's Bay Co. fort was situated one mile up the west side of Mossy river. This fort was abandoned in 1821 when the Hudson's Bay Co. moved to the North West Co. fort, which was built on Valley river west of Dauphin lake. The Hudson's Bay Co. also had a trading post about midway on the west shore of lake Dauphin shown on Tyrrell's map 1891 (No. 83) as abandoned. Several different posts were built in the immediate vicinity at various times. Thompson obtained supplies from the North West Co. fort in 1797. Tyrrell in his Report on north-western Manitoba 1887-90, speaks of seeing the remains of old Hudson Bay Co. trading posts on west side lake Dauphin, 8 miles south of mouth of Valley river, and other ruins of the Company's fort on east bank of Mossy river, ¾ mile above its mouth, on a narrow strip of grassy land between the forest and the river.
Hudson's Bay Co. post on an island off the Labrador coast about 56°N near Moar. This post was sold to Hudson's Bay Co. by A. B. Hunt & Co. in 1869, and has since been maintained by them. Shown on White's map Labrador Posts (No. 24).
Hudson's Bay Co. post on south end (head) of Dease lake B. C., source of Dease river. Built by Robert Campbell 1838. This fort was soon burned by Indians, but was rebuilt after the fire. Does not appear on the company lists of forts later than 1856 until 1925, and appears to have been closed from about 1870 to 1910. Shown on map of Alaska &c, 1897 (No. 84) and Arrowsmith 1857 (No. 8).
See Fort Caribou.
See Ash House.
French fort on right bank of St. Lawrence, site of present town of Ogdensburg. Established about 1718. The fort was rebuilt or strengthened in 1748. Bougainville in 1757 described it as "a poor fort of wood palisades with a small garrison". A mission for Indians of Five Nations was established there by Abbé Piquet of the Sulpicians. About 100 Indians of the Five Nations assembled there for trade. It was a King's post and one of the very few from which no "eau-de-vie" was given out to the Indians. The mission had been only recently established in 1757. The fort was also known as "La Galette" and location shown on map of French claims 1756 (No. 10) also No. 97.
Two small trading posts of North West Co. and Hudson's Bay Co. on North Saskatchewan river, in vicinity of Manchester House. Mentioned by McDonald of Garth in his Autobiographical Notes 1792 (Masson II pg. 16), also by Alexander Henry Jr. 1808 Sept. 11, who says "this was old fort Brulé abandoned some years ago." It was built on north side of river. Thompson, 1800, names it Island House and in 1808 calls it "Burnt Fort de l'Isle". It was abandoned before 1800. The Fall Indians plundered and burnt the Hudson's Bay Co. post at this place in 1793 but were repulsed from the North West Co. See No. 239.
A North West Co. fort on Saskatchewan river about 20 miles above Fort George, built by Decoigne 1801.
Military fort in seigniory granted to Charles le Moyne 1657 at Longueil. It was built 1689-90 for protection against Iroquois to the south. Was demolished 1810. The seigniory of Longueil comprised 150 square miles. Charles Le Moyne (son of the first Seigneur) became Baron in 1700 and the title hereditary. The seigniory was noted for its famous baronial chateau of solid masonry and flanked by four towers, reminder of castles in feudal France.
See Fort Niagara.
This name was given to several different forts. See under the following: Fort à la Corne; Portage-la-Prairie N. W. Co.; Fort la Jonquière; Fort Edmonton (See Fort Augustus); Fort aux Trembles on Assiniboine river; French fort Nepoin on Saskatchewan river. Lower Fort Des Prairies was Fort Vermilion on Saskatchewan river at mouth of Vermilion river. Upper Fort Des Prairies was Fort Augustus.
See Fort à la Corne.
See Keg River Fort.
The first trading post between lakes Huron and Erie was built by Dulhut, at Dénonville's request, in 1686, or a little earlier, at the present city of Port Huron, not far from the site of Fort Gratiot. It was called Fort St. Joseph. On Bellin's map 1755 it is called Fort du Luth. Fort Gratiot and Ft. St. Clair were on the American side of St. Clair river, between lake St. Clair and lake Huron. Fort St. Joseph was soon abandoned and is so marked by symbol on La Hontan's map 1703. In 1686 Marquis de Dénonville urged the French Government to strengthen the fort at Detroit. Nothing was done until 1701 when Cadillac founded the new fort and called it Fort Pontchartrain, at the same time establishing a settlement at Detroit, which was the first French colony in that region. The fort was also called Fort Ticksarondis. Bougainville 1757 states that it was an important entrepôt for the southern posts, also a settlement of Huron Indians. He calls it "Pontchartrain des Deux Lacs", established by Antoine de la Motte-Cadillac de Toulouse. He says there were 200 habitations including the environs, well stocked, which furnished grain to the different posts in the north. He recommended establishing there the Feudal system for soldiers, the officers to be seigneurs. This government, he says, would be able to furnish the posts of Niagara, Frontenac, La Présentation, and others on the shore of the St Lawrence. (This system had been established in the Richelieu valley for the officers and disbanded soldiers of the Carignan regiment). After the cession of Canada, Detroit surrendered to the British, November, 1760. During Pontiac's war, which broke out soon after the English forces garrisoned at the western forts, Detroit sustained a seige of 15 months 1763-64 without surrender. The fort was located on the west side of Detroit river, stockaded with bastions at each corner, palisades 25 feet high, the whole surrounded by a moat. Over each gate there was a blockhouse. It was armed with a few light guns. Shown on map of French claims 1756 (No. 10); on Bellin's map 1744, (No. 15); on La Hontan's map 1703 (No. 20); on Jefferys map 1762 (See No. 12). On Danville 1755 (No. 97) is called Ft. Pontchartrain. Also on maps 96 and 120 & 111. Both names given on Pownall's map 1776 No. 108.
See Island House.
Hudson's Bay Co. fort, Winnipeg, on site of present Robert and George avenues, about one mile downstream from Fort Gibraltar, near the bank of the Red river. It was built by John McLeod for Governor McDonnell in 1812. Was captured by Cuthbert Grant, July, 1816, after the killing of Governor Semple at Seven Oaks and partly demolished. It was recaptured by Lord Selkirk in 1817. For several years Fort Douglas was headquarters of the Governor of Assiniboia. When the Hudson's Bay Co. repurchased Lord Selkirk's rights, in 1835, Fort Douglas was sold to Robert Logan who occupied some of the buildings until 1854. See Winnipeg Forts and maps in "Old Forts of Winnipeg." Built on site of Fort Selkirk.
Hudson's Bay Co. post in British Columbia about 130°W. It was situated west of Fort Halkett and is shown on map in Willson's "Great Company". On Dease river at mouth of Carribeau (French creek) river. It appears on Arrowsmith map 1850 (No. 100) but not on later maps - Also on No. 6.
A small Hudson's Bay Co. post at mouth of Duck river, west shore of lake Winnipegosis. It was established 1859. Stood at bottom of the bay, 70 yards back from the lake. Abandoned during the autumn of 1887, a new store being opened at Pine River on west bank about 1½ miles from the mouth. This was always a small outpost, not included in lists of forts. Shown on map Forest Distribution Tyrrell (No. 43).
Hudson's Bay Co. post at mouth of Du Lièvre river, 15 miles below Hull, shown on Arrowsmith map 1857 (No. 8), and became the basis for town of Buckingham. There was an old French fort or trading post on this site which was deserted in 1761 when Alexander Henry Sr. passed up the Ottawa. Possibly this fort was operated by the North West Co. and after the coalition 1821, by the Hudson's Bay Co.
North West Co. fort on North Saskatchewan river, known as Middle Fort or Half-way House. Alexander Henry Jr. passed it Sept. 5, 1808, and observed that "it had been abandoned many years ago". Thompson also passed the site in 1808. It was 2¼ hours down from Carlton (Crossing Place) and 1 hour before Yellow Banks, and 2½ hours above the site of old Hudson's House. It was about halfway between Carlton and Prince Albert.
An old French fortified trading post at mouth of Dumoine river about 9 miles above Allumette Island in Ottawa river. It was deserted in 1761 when Alexander Henry Sr. passed on his journey west. It was deserted at the cession of Canada when all the Ottawa river posts were abandoned.
North West Co. fort at north end of lake Nipigon. Probably built by Duncan Cameron for the North West Co. about 1795. He was clerk at Nipigon 1797 and in charge of Nipigon district 1799. The site is uncertain but was probably located on Wabinosh Bay at the northwest angle, where the Hudson's Bay Co. located at first, or on Windigo Bay. See also "Nipigon House".
Hudson's Bay Co. fort on north bank of Peace river at mouth of Muddy Creek (118°40'W & 56°N.) built about 1800. Was closed temporarily in 1825 to punish the Indians for the massacre at Fort St. John in 1823. This fort was maintained by the Company until about 1900. Shown on maps No. 8, 101 & 100.
The North West Co. also built opposite the Hudson's Bay Co. on the south bank, about 1800. This fort was soon moved to the north bank, near the Hudson's Bay Co. It was named after McLeod's castle of Skye Is. Harmon visited the fort in 1809. Shown on Map of Early Fur Trading Posts in Alberta (No. 11).
French fort at the confluence of the Alleghany[sic] and Ohio rivers. It was first built by Governor Dinwiddie of Virginia in 1753 and Washington with 150 men was sent to garrison it. Before the arrival of Washington, Contrecoeur had captured the fort, which was then strengthened by the French and the building completed (1753). General Braddock was defeated in 1755 when attempting to recapture the fort. It is given in Bougainville's list who says that it was made "of wood, small, of little account, controlled by two approaches within gunshot; in a word, indefensible, if attacked. It is necessary to prevent the English from seizing these parts. It ought to be a more respectable fort which in time of war could hold 500 or 600 men as garrison". Under the French regime it was rated as one of the King's posts for trade.
In 1758 it was captured by the English after being abandoned and blown up by the French. The name was changed to Fort Pitt and the settlement was called Pittsbourg. It was rebuilt by the English after 1761. It was attacked by Pontiac in 1763 and the attack repulsed. Map (97).
See Fort Highfield.
See Fort la Traite.
See Keg River Fort.
A North West Co. post is shown at the outlet of lake Eabamet (tributary to Albany river, 88°W.) on map by Wm. McInnes 1903 "Part of District of Keewatin" marked "Old Post". (No. 54). It is also shown on map of North Western Ontario 1922 (No. 79) and on map of Albany, Severn and Winisk rivers 1910 (No. 57) marked "N.W. Co. Old Post". It was located near Fort Hope of Hudson's Bay Co.
See Montagne d'Aigle.
Hudson's Bay Co. post on Eagle lake, about 75 miles east of Rat Portage. It was established about 1860, appears on the 1872 list of posts, and was closed about 1880.
Hudson's Bay Co. fort at mouth of East Main river (called also Hudson, Canuse, and Slude river). Built 1685. It was rebuilt in 1719 and again in 1730, a small square fort. In 1732 it was made headquarters of the east coast, until after 1821. As the only fort on Hudson Bay held by the English, between 1697 and 1713 was Fort Albany, it is probable that the first East Main fort was rebuilt in 1719 when the sloop "Diligence" wintered at East Main 1718-1719. The first journal of East Main begins in 1736. In 1739 a new Factory house was built nearer the coast at George's Point, completed 1739-40. In 1749 it was listed as one of the Hudson's Bay Co's six forts on Hudson Bay. In 1764 it appears to have been again rebuilt. In 1821 it ceased to be headquarters of east coast. In 1830 it was in a dilapidated condition. It does not appear on the list of 1857 and was probably closed for a time. It was named as one of the Hudson's Bay Co. posts on the Deed of Surrender 1869. Is being operated 1928. It was sometimes called "Slude River Post". The first East Main post was on Fishing Creek on the north side of mouth East Main river. The new fort was built on a point on the south side of mouth of river about 4½ miles southwest of the old site. Appears on White's map of Labrador Peninsula (No. 24) and Carver's map 1778 (No. 19) &c.
See Fort Augustus.
Small Hudson's Bay Co. post on Egg Lake about 10 miles west of Nut Lake, Saskatchewan. Mentioned in annual report Department of Interior 1892 (part II p. 56) as "remains of old trading post which had been burnt". Map showing location in same report. Was on the list of Hudson's Bay Co. posts 1894.
See Somerset House.
Hudson's Bay Co. fort on Assiniboine river about 5 miles below mouth of Qu'Appelle river. Built soon after the coalition of 1821. In 1862 it had declined to a "lone habitation", trade having disappeared. Its only purpose for some time had been to supply pemmican and dried meat to brigades and northern posts. It was included in the 1869 list of forts but was discontinued soon after. It was sometimes called "Beaver Creek Post". Shown Map Macoun 1882 [No. 13] and its site on Sectional Sheet No. 121.
North West Co. fort on left bank Peace river above Fort Vermilion. Built before 1808 for trade with Beaver Indians. Visited by Harmon 1808. Shown on map No. 2 for Harmon's journal. It was probably near or opposite Keg river Fort or Fort Du Tremble built later (Map No. 86) and was named "Old Fort" on Hudson's Bay Co. map 1857 (No. 8). See also maps No. 5 and 11.
See Fort Mamattawa.
Explorer's fort built by Sir John Franklin in 1820 on Yellowknife river near source of Coppermine river, at Winter lake. It was not used by fur traders. Map 8 &c.
Hudson's Bay Co. post at outlet Indian House lake, an enlargement of George river, about 100 miles from George River post at mouth of river in Ungava Bay. Built 1838-39. Called later Fort Trial. Was probably abandoned in 1842 for some time, but was included in the Company list of 1857. Its site is shown on Low's map 1896 [No. 64] marked "abandoned".
North West Co. fort on Qu'Appelle river near mouth of Cut-Arm Creek. It was two days journey up the Qu'Appelle river from its junction with the Assiniboine river, on the right bank. It was situated not far above Fort Ellice of later date. It is shown on Rinfret map No. 3 marked "Old Fort Espérance". Said to have been first built by Robert Grant about 1783. John McDonnell wrote in his journal from Fort Espérance under date October 1793. This was the first North West Co. fort in the Assiniboine country. It was rebuilt in 1806 by McDonald for the North West Co. This post became later the chief provision depot of the Company and large quantities of dried meat and pemmican were kept there for the other posts. It was called by Thompson "Thorburn's House", who visited the fort in 1797.
The X. Y. Co. also had a small post nearby.
Hudson's Bay Co. fort on Vancouver Island built about 1850 and shown on Watkin map No. 21. It appears on the Company lists of 1869 and 1872, but was soon superseded by the Esquimalt Naval Station.
See Fort Rigolette.
See Fort St. Paul.
Hudson's Bay Co. fort on Pacific coast between Fort Simpson and Fort McLoughlin, near mouth of Naas river B. C., site of present Bella Coola. Founded 1835 to serve as an intermediate station. Shown on map No. 6 & No. 101. Was of short duration.
A small Hudson's Bay Co. trading post on Churchill river, one mile below the mouth of Reindeer river. It was built in 1795 and apparently was abandoned in 1796 when Bedfont House was built on west shore Reindeer lake. Thompson was there in June 1796.
Hudson's Bay Co. post at outlet of Manitoba lake on Portage Bay. It was established about 1856 and is included in the Company's lists to 1894 inclusive. Was visited by the Hind's Expedition of 1858. Shown on H. B. Co. Map of 1857 (No. 8) and Macoun map 1882 (No. 13).
Hudson's Bay Co. post near mouth of Koksoak river Ungava Bay, established about 1833. This post was included in the List of 1869 on the Deed of Surrender. It appears in the List of 1894 but was discontinued soon, not being in the List of 1925.
Hudson's Bay Co. fort at Winnipeg, built by Fidler for the Company in 1818. It was a palisaded structure located at the present McDermot Avenue and Notre Dame Street, east of the site of Fort Gibraltar. It was known as "The Company's Fort", or Fiddler's Fort. Until the Hudson's Bay Co. rebuilt Fort Gibraltar as the first Fort Garry in 1822, this was the Company's establishment at the Forks as distinct from Fort Douglas which was distant about one mile. It was said to have been destroyed by the flood of 1826. See also "Winnipeg Forts".
Free trader's post on North Saskatchewan river on north side, at Nipawin Rapids (Nepowewin), about 35 miles east of Fort à la Corne (104°20'West). It was built by James Finlay, pioneer free-trader in 1767. It is shown on Hudson's Bay Co. map 1832 (No. 101), 1850 (No. 100) & 1857 (No. 8); see also maps 37 & 42 for position of rapids. Journal of Matthew Cocking of Hudson's Bay Co. 1772 says that Finlay occupied in 1767. Alexander Henry passed the site of Finlay's fort in 1776. The original fort was probably destroyed by Indians (?) and was rebuilt and used promiscuously by traders for many years. Sir Alexander Mackenzie in his "Account of the Rise of the Fur Trade" names James Finlay and Thomas Curry as the first traders who entered the west after the French retired. This was probably the first post built in this region after the Cession of Canada.
Trading house of free-traders shown on map No. 11 of early Alberta posts on right bank of Peace river about 116°34'W. and 58°14'N. opposite some islands, and about 30 miles upstream from the "Old Establishment" at the mouth of the Boyer river (Ft. Vermilion). It is named "Old Fort" on the Hudson's Bay Co. map 1857 (No. 8).
Later name of Salt River House, which see.
Hudson's Bay Co. post on Hayes river, about 40 leagues from mouth, on Hayes island, opposite Flamborough Head. It was built in 1750 to prevent "interlopers intercepting Indians before they could reach our Factory at York Fort". In 1752 it was stated that this post was not independent of York Fort. It is shown on the Carver map of 1778 (No. 19) and on Condor's map 1750 (page 38, "Old Forts of Winnipeg" by Dr. Napier Bell.)
Hudson's Bay Co. outpost of Fort Colville. It was established by Thompson in 1809, on the right bank of Flat Heads or Clarke's river 115°W. The Company claimed indemnity for this post from the United States in 1865. (Vid. Oregon territory). It is shown on the Hudson's Bay Co. map 1857 (Arrowsmith) No. 8, and Map of Devine 1857 No. 12, also Arrowsmith 1832 (No. 101) and 1850 (No. 100).
Hudson's Bay Co. post on Ground Hog lake near the head of Ground Hog (or Kakozhisk) river, a branch of the Mattagami river, Ontario. It was formerly called Fort Kuckatoosh, (probably from Kakozhisk), and was listed under that name in the Company's list of 1857 and in the list accompanying the Deed of Surrender 1869. It appears on list of 1894 but was probably closed about 1900. Originally this was a North West Company post and was taken over by the Hudson's Bay Co. at the time of the union 1821. It is shown on Geological Survey map with report 1880-2 (No. 96); on the Watkin map 1872 (No. 21) and on map Labrador posts White 1926 [No. 24].
Hudson's Bay Co. fortified post at east end of lake Athabaska, situated on a low point of sand and rock on north shore where the lake is only 2 miles wide. It consists of a number of well-built log houses surrounded by palisades of stout posts. This post is on the principal line of travel of the Barren Ground caribou in their regular migrations north and south. It was built by José Mercredi, a French half-breed, in 1845, who in 1892 was 75 years old and had been in charge of the post for 47 years. In early part of the century, about 1820, the Hudson's Bay Co. had their post on a point of the south shore. The three inhabitants were killed by Chippewyan Indians and the post looted. At the same time the North West Co. had a post on a point of the north shore a short distance farther east, but after the murder of the Hudson's Bay Co. men, they moved across to the point of south shore. The post was abandoned by both companies until rebuilt by the Hudson's Bay Co. in 1845. Since then, the post has been in constant operation. Location of post is shown on Tyrrell's map of lake Athabaska 1895 (No. 41). Both posts are shown on north shore on Rinfret map of Henry Thompson Travels (No. 3). See also H. B. Co. map 1832 (No. 101) & 1857 (No. 8); & Johnston map 1877 (No. 16). Map No. 21 Watkin 1872 shows the two locations of Fond-du-Lac on the north shore (1) near the centre and (2) at east end. Lake Athabaska was also called Lake of the Hills and Lac des Buttes.
North West Co. post at mouth of St. Louis river, west end of lake Superior. There was a portage route thence to Red lake and other posts terminating at the Red river, which was travelled by Thompson 1798 and had been long used by the Indians. These posts were surrendered to the United States in 1796. Fond-du-Lac was also known as St. Louis River Post. Shown on map for Harmon's Journal 1820 (No. 2) and Rinfret map (No. 3), on Arrowsmith 1801 (No. 4), and 1857 (No. 8) Devine map 1857 (No. 12). Thompson's route from the Red river to Fond-du-Lac 1798 is traced on map No. 88.
Small North West Co. fort on north side of Peace River, 5 miles above the mouth of Smoky river, near the forks. It was built in 1792 by Alexander Mackenzie. Thompson visited the post in 1802, and John Stuart in 1803 & 1804. After the union of 1821 this post was continued by the Hudson's Bay Co. for some years. The present Peace River Landing is a short distance below the old Fort of the Forks. Site is 117°23'W. It is shown on the Arrowsmith map 1857 (No. 8) and Map of Early Posts in Alberta (No. 11), also No. 35. On Arrowsmith map 1832, 1850 and 1857 it is named "Fort" only.
See Fort McMurray, also Fort George.
Old French fort at mouth Ohio river north side and east side of Mississippi river. Probably one of earliest French forts in the Mississippi and Ohio valleys. No other name found for it. Was not included in Bougainville's list 1757 and probably destroyed before 1750. Marked as site of "ancient fort" on D'Anville's map 1755 (No. 97). Shown also on Rocque's map 1763 (No. 96 and on No. 95 and 98.
Hudson's Bay Co. fort at outlet of Rainy Lake, built in 1820 near site of old French fort St. Pierre (which see). It was located two miles down the Rainy river from the lake and was named Fort Frances after the wife of Sir George Simpson. It was surrounded by stockades 10 feet high. A description is given in Grant's "Ocean to Ocean" 1872. This post was operated by the Company until about 1900 and was finally listed in 1894. Shown on Arrowsmith map 1857 (No. 8).
Hudson's Bay Co. fort at south end of Frances lake near source of Frances river, a branch of the Dease river, Yukon. Situated on a peninsula between the east and west arms of the lake. It was built in 1841 by Campbell's men and first called Glenlyon House, then Frances Lake House, then Fort Frances. It was abandoned in 1851. The site is shown on map of Canada 35 m. to 1 in. and on map Upper Yukon (Dawson) in Report Interior Dep't. 1887 (No. 89), also Map of Alaska &c 1897 (No. 84). It was reopened about 1880.
At the outlet of Great Bear lake. It was built for Sir John Franklin by the Hudson's Bay Co. in 1825. Its site is shown on Map Mackenzie River (Topographical Survey) 1923 (No. 25).
North West Co. fort at east end of Fraser lake, B. C., built by Simon Fraser 1806. It was burned October 4, 1817 and afterwards rebuilt. It was taken over by the Hudson's Bay Co. after the union of 1821 and was operated by the Company until about 1900. It appears on all the Lists of forts to 1894. This fort is said to be "the first settlement made in the so-called Oregon Territory by civilized man". It is shown on map of Henry-Thompson travels (Coues) No. 3 & on Arrowsmith's maps 1832 (No. 101), 1850 (No. 100), 1857 (No. 8).
See Fort La Tour.
Hudson's Bay Co. fort at confluence of Abitibi and Frederick House rivers, Ontario. The Hudson's Bay Co. built their first fort at this site in 1783, on the site of an old French post built before 1696. In 1785 Frederick House was moved from its first location to the site of the old French fort called St. Germain or Piscoutagamy at the outlet of Night-hawk lake built in 1673. In 1794 Frederick House was ordered closed but in 1798 it had been reopened on Frederick House lake at the outlet (then called Waratowaha lake). This post seems to have been closed about 1820, but in 1822 it was again in operation. In 1887 the Hudson's Bay Co. maintained a post on Night-hawk lake. Its location is shown on Arrowsmith map 1857 (No. 8) and on White's map of Labrador 1926 (No. 24). See also Old Post (French fort).
Free trader's fort on Red River, (Manitoba), two or three leagues above the Rivière aux Morts and about 3 leagues below St. Andrews rapids. R. aux Morts is now called Netley's Creek. Location was near site of present Selkirk. It was an old cleared spot forming an ancient camping ground of the Assiniboines. Fort was built by Joseph Frobisher, brother of Thomas Frobisher, in 1774 or earlier, and was the first English fort or post on the Red river after the French. It was only a temporary structure. Sometimes called Red River Fort. The present Red river was known as Lower Red river by the North West Co. and the Assiniboine as the Upper Red river. After the name Assiniboine was given to that river, the Red River was known as Upper or Lower Red river according to location north or south of Pembina (See map of Harmon's Journal No. 2). The Assiniboine was also known as the Red river or Stone Indian river (Map 4).
Small Hudson's Bay Co. post on Frog lake about 30 miles from Fort Pitt, north of North Saskatchewan river, about 110°15'W. In the rebellion of 1885 this post was raided by Indians and destroyed by fire, the garrison occupants being massacred. Date of establishment not ascertained.
One of the chief portages traversed by the fur-traders. It crosses the height of land separating the drainage basins of the Nelson and Saskatchewan rivers from the Churchill drainage and was the gateway from eastern Canada to the west and northwest. Fur-traders from the east after reaching Cumberland lake, passed through Heron, Pelican, and Lake of the Woods, to Frog Portage which brought them to the Churchill river, thence westerly by Lac la Ronge, Ile à la Crosse, Buffalo lake, Lac la Loche, to the Methye Portage and the Clearwater river to the Athabaska river and lake. It was first crossed to the Churchill river by the Canadian fur traders from Montreal in 1774, Joseph and Thomas Frobisher and Alexander Henry, who afterwards formed the North West Company. A fort was constructed nearby known as Fort La Traite, or Frog Portage Fort.
The chief Hudson's Bay Co. fort at Winnipeg. Was built on site of N. W. C. Fort Gibraltar in 1822 after the union of both companies in 1821. It was a rough affair with wooden palisades, known at first as The Company's Fort, or Fort Gibraltar (so called because it was built on site of N.W. Co. Fort Gibraltar.) It was named fort Garry by Governor Simpson in 1823 after a Hudson's Bay Co. councillor. The fort consisted of the buildings erected by the North West Co. after the destruction of Fort Gibraltar and some additions and palisade. This fort was known as the first fort Garry. Was situated near the banks of the Assiniboine and Red rivers. Much of the land was washed into the Assiniboine river, especially by the flood of 1826, and in 1852 what was left of the fort was pulled down.
The second Fort Garry, was begun in 1835, a little removed from the site of the first fort Garry. It was known as Upper Fort Garry. Built by Governor Alexander Christie. It was substantially built, covered a space 240 x 280 feet enclosed by a solid stone wall and four large round bastions of solid masonry at the corners. It was sold to the city of Winnipeg in 1882. Only the north gate now remains as an historical site. A picture of the second fort Garry is given in Hind's Expedition vol. II, p. 82, 1858.
French fort built by Governor De la Jonquière 1751 at head of Baie Verte near mouth of Gaspereau river, Chignecto Neck, N.S. A road connected it with Fort Beauséjour in 1754. Captured by Col. Moncton 1755 after capture of Ft. Beauséjour. Name then changed to Fort Moncton. Finally abandoned and burnt together with Ft. Lawrence (Beaubassin) in September, 1756.
(At least 9 different places were known as Ft. George).
A North West Co. fort on North Saskatchewan river about 25 miles above old Fort Vermilion, about 110°45'W., on the north bank, 4½ miles above mouth of Moose Creek. Built by Angus Shaw 1792. It was abandoned in 1801 in favour of Island fort 18 miles up the river. It was the most westerly house in 1798. Its erection was noted by McDonald in his autobiography, Masson II, page 17. It was visited by Thompson in 1808 and is shown on the Thompson map. (On north side of river, Section 19, Tp. 56, R. 5 W. of 4th Meridian). In 1809 was in ruins, only the chimneys being visible, as noted by A. Henry Jr. This fort was afterward rebuilt and taken over by the Hudson's Bay Co., as it appears on their 1832 (No. 101), 1854 (No. 77) and 1857 map (No. 8). It was probably maintained by the Co. until about 1865. Was in the immediate vicinity of Buckingham House. It is shown on Tyrrell map Northern Alberta (No. 36) and Hume map part of Alberta (No. 40).
One of the three British forts at mouth of Oswego river, half-mile from Fort Oswego. It was a small fort, captured by the French 1756.
Hudson's Bay Co. fort at mouth of Fort George river (Big or Gilpin river) on James Bay. Established before 1805. was called Big River Factory in 1807. Was removed to Great Wale river in 1808, but soon after was re-opened at Big river mouth. Was in operation 1820, a provision base in 1832, included in lists of Company forts in 1857 and 1869, and still maintained (1928). It was sometimes called Great River and Big River fort. It is shown on White's map Labrador (No. 24) and Arrowsmith of Hudson's Bay Co. forts 1857 (No. 8).
Hudson's Bay Co. fort near mouth of George river, Labrador. Established by McLean for the Company 1838 and was also known as Fort Siveright. In 1842 it was probably abandoned when Fort Chimo was closed. It is included in list of forts on Deed of Surrender 1869. In 1876 it was re-opened, the remains of the old buildings being used in constructing two new houses. Is in operation to day. Shown on White's map Labrador (24) and on map of posts 1872 by Watkin (No. 21).
A North West Co. fort on the strait at outlet of Great Slave lake, south of Big Island, west of Point Desmarais. It was abandoned before 1840. It was noted in Richardson's Journal of a Boat Voyage vol. 1, p. 160. (1851).
Hudson's Bay Co. fort on Hay river (Great Slave lake) mentioned by Bryce History H. B. Co. p. 392. Several forts were built on the Hay river from time to time. Probably the site of this Fort George is now occupied by Hay River Post.
A North West Co. fort on Fraser river, B. C., at mouth of Nechaco river. Built 1807. Was taken over by Hudson's Bay Co. 1821 and is named on their list of 1894. Shown on Map No. 1 & Rinfret Map No. 3. Called Fort of Forks on Arrowsmith map 1832 (No. 101) and is placed on east side of the river at mouth of Stuart's river (a branch of the Nechako). It is called Fort George on Arrowsmith 1857 (No. 8) and shown in present location.
North West Co. fort built by John McDonald of Garth for the Company in 1805. McDonald in his autobiography under date 1807 (Masson's vol. 2.) says "I established a fort at the junction of the Red and Assiniboine rivers, and called it "Gibraltar," though there was not a rock or stone within three miles". It was erected on the north side of the Assiniboine river at its junction with the Red river and extended along the bank of the Red river. Was one year in building, was surrounded by a stockade of oak 12 to 15 feet high, enclosing eight houses within. It stood on or near the site of old Fort Rouge, also of Bruce and Boyer's fort 1780, of Alex. Henry's 1803 fort, and of St. Pierre's 1751 fort. Was quite near the bank of the Assiniboine river, and near the present bridge. It was the chief North West Co. fort in the interior. Was in charge of Duncan Cameron when captured by Governor Semple April 1816, by whom it was completely demolished (1816) and its material used in strengthening Fort Douglas. After the capture of Fort Gibraltar, the North West Company proceeded to build houses and stores to replace the old fort and, after the union of 1821, the Hudson's Bay Co. built the first Fort Garry on the site of Fort Gibraltar and for this reason this Fort Garry was sometimes known as Fort Gibraltar. (See Fort Garry and Winnipeg forts).
Hudson's Bay Co. post at mile 327 Hudson Bay Railway 3 miles south of Kettle Rapids on Nelson river. Established 1927.
See Fort Frances.
See Fort Mumford.
Hudson's Bay Co. post constructed on Upasheway lake (Washisagaigan lake), tributary of the Albany river, between Osnaburgh House and Martin Falls House. About 35 miles upstream from Martin Falls. In 1774 the Master of Henley House was instructed to choose a suitable place farther inland and in season 1777 to 1778 Gloucester House was constructed. This was the first of the Company posts built inland after Henley House (1741). In 1774 the "pedlars" had built a post about 70 miles(?) from Henley House and to compete with this, Gloucester House was built. The pedlar's house may have been the old North West Co. house on lake Eabamet at the outlet. This, however, was about 175 miles upstream from Henley House, not 70 miles. (See Maps No. 79 and 54). Gloucester House was in operation in 1798 and in 1814, as shown on lists of those dates, but was probably discontinued before 1821 as it is not included in List at date of Union. It was probably soon re-opened as it appears on the Hudson's Bay Co. map of 1857 by Arrowsmith, but not on later lists. On T. Kitchin map 1794 Gloucester House is shown on a large lake called St. Ann's lake near source of Albany river. Washisagaigan lake (abbreviated to Washi lake on maps 79 and 54) means "Lake of the Narrows", or "Turning-off-place", there being a double route going west to Makokebatan lake. It was formerly called Gloucester lake from the Hudson's Bay Co. post, situated at the narrows. Gloucester House is shown on map No. 2 (from Harmon's Journal), on Map No. 4 Arrowsmith 1801, and on Map No. 8 Arrowsmith 1857.
One of the early French trading posts on the lower St. Lawrence at mouth of Godbout river, about 67°30'W. It was within the King's Domain and was reckoned as a King's post. Established before 1670. Mitchell's map 1755 shows location of a "French House" and Bouchette's map 1846 marks it as a Hudson's Bay Co. post. It was leased to the North West Co. 1788 and after the union 1821 to the Hudson's Bay Co. Mackenzie, 1808, in his survey of the King's posts says, "The buildings are poorly placed without order, on a low sandy point on east side of Godbout river. It is one of the best posts for furs and seal oil and salmon are plentiful." It was included in the Hudson's Bay Co. list of 1856 but was closed in 1859 on recommendation of Governor Simpson. See Map No. 67.
Hudson's Bay Co. post on north shore of God's lake, Ontario, about 30 miles by portage route north to Hayes river. It was probably built about 1830 and has been in continuous operation to 1925 (or date). It was shown on the Hudson's Bay Co. map 1854 (No. 77) and 1857 by Arrowsmith (No. 8). Its location is shown on map of Keewatin 1911 (No. 68). It appears on all the Company Lists of posts from time of union 1821 & on Arrowsmith map of 1832 (No. 101).
North West Co. fort erected 1804 on left bank of Mackenzie river, 131°W. and 67°27'N. After union of 1821, it was moved by the Hudson's Bay Co. about 100 miles further upstream to the south to Manitou Island near the Ramparts, about 1825. Good Hope was the most northerly post of the North West Co. The fort on Manitou island being destroyed by ice in 1836, the Hudson's Bay Co. rebuilt (1836-39) on the mainland, the present location on right bank. It is shown on Arrowsmith map 1857 (No. 8) and 1854 (No. 77) marked 1839. Also map of Mackenzie river No. 25.
Hudson's Bay Co. fort on left or east bank of Finlay river about 124°45'W. and 56°35'N. It was established about 1890. Shown map No. 35.
North West Co. fort on the upper Red river at mouth of Red Lake river, later known as Grand Forks, Dakota. Built 1807 by Alex. Henry Junior's men from Pembina. "Grandes Fourches" was the name given by the traders. The first Hudson's Bay Co. fort on the upper Red river was built by McLeod in November 1812, in opposition to the North West Co. at Grand Forks, and was located about 18 miles north of Grand Forks at the mouth of Turtle river. (See Turtle River fort.) After delineation of the international boundary, forts on the American side were abandoned.
Situated near source of Ottawa river. Originally a North West Co. post built before 1820 and included in list of their posts at union of 1821. The post was maintained by the Hudson's Bay Co. from 1821 to date and is included in their list of 1857 and shown on Arrowsmith map 1857 (No. 8). See also White's Map of forts and trading posts 1926 (No. 24).
See Red River Fort.
North West Co. fort at the east end of the Grand Portage route from lake Superior to Lake of the Woods. The grand portage or first portage from lake Superior to Pigeon river near Partridge Falls portage was nine miles long and terminated at Fort Charlotte. Grand Portage fort was first begun in 1778, although there was some sort of a fort there in 1775 when Alexander Henry passed on his way west, and the building was completed in 1784. It was a substantial fort surrounded by palisades 18 inches in diameter, enclosing sixteen buildings, of which six were storehouses, the stockade being 24 by 30 rods, about 400 by 500 feet. The fort was situated at the bottom of a shallow bay, 3 miles deep and 4½ miles wide at the mouth, called Grand Portage bay, between Pointe aux Chapeaux and Pointe à la Framboise, the palisade being about 15 to 20 paces from the water's edge. A small island lay just opposite the fort, and immediately back of the fort was a lofty round sugar loaf mountain on the northwest now called Mt. Josephine.
Grand Portage fort was sometimes called Fort George. After the international boundary was defined, the fort being on American territory was abandoned 1800-1801 when the "New Fort" (i. e. Fort William) was built on the site of the old French fort Kaministiquia.
The X. Y. Co. also had a trading post erected 1797 about 200 rods distant from the North West Co. In 1802 the X. Y. Co. also moved to Kaministiquia where they established their base of supplies on lake Superior.
Hudson's Bay Co. post at mouth of Saskatchewan river lake Winnipeg, at foot of the rapids. This fort was built by the Hudson's Bay Co. soon after the old French Fort Bourbon was destroyed, before 1775. Cedar Lake House was built by the Hudson's Bay Co. very near the site of old Fort Bourbon (q. v.) The Report of the Department of the Interior 1875 (page XXXII) says, "The original post of the Hudson's Bay Co. at the mouth of the river has been abandoned and a new one established on their Reserve, some six miles higher up the river, at head of the portage, which the river steamer descends to." The Company about 1875 constructed a tramway four miles long parallel to the rapids, at both ends of which the Company maintained a house. A description of the Grand Rapids and of the forts is given in Hind's Canadian Expedition vol. I, p. 460.
North West Co. post built by Cuthbert Grant Grant before the end of 1793. Known also as Aspin House. Situated on east bank Assiniboine river (Section 14, Township 28, Range 31) a little below Little Boggy Creek. Was in the bottom of a valley 500 paces east of river and 50 paces from foot of wooded bank, at mouth of a deep ravine, and 35 feet above the river. For many years it did a large business in beaver and otter. (Masson vol. 1. p. 275-285.) It is named Aspin House on Thompson's map 1812 No. 7, and Grant's House on Arrowsmith map 1801 of Mackenzie's track No. 4, and its location is shown on Map of Indian Territories about 1817 No. 9.
Fortified post built by Cuthbert Grant on the Red river about 10½ miles above Pembina. North West Co.
The first trading post on the upper Red river, built by Peter Grant about 1793 on east side of Red river opposite mouth of Pembina river and opposite Chaboillez' House (q.v.)[Transcriber's Note: Possibly Fort Paubna] built later 1797-98 for North West Co. Alexander Henry 1801 mentions "the place where Grant's fort had stood" and which was destroyed.
Fort erected by U. S. Government in 1814 at Port Huron at head of St. Clair river outlet of lake Huron. Port Huron is the site of old Fort St. Joseph built by Dulhut in 1686 not far from the site of Fort Gratiot. Fort St. Joseph was soon abandoned and is so marked on la Hontan map 1690. First French settlement at Port Huron was made in 1790[sic]. See Fort Detroit. Fort Gratiot is shown on map of British America 1839 No. 17, also Map of Upper Canada 1821 No. 120.
Hudson's Bay Co. post built in 1756 at mouth Great Whale river to take the place of Fort Richmond on Richmond gulf which was demolished at that time. Great Whale River House was abandoned in 1780 and rebuilt in 1793. It was in operation in 1820 and listed 1821. Hendry's Journal says that it was not occupied in 1828. In 1837 a small post was again erected at Whale river. It was included in the Hudson's Bay Co. schedules 1857 and 1869 and is in operation today. Shown on Map No. 24.
Green lake tributary of Beaver river, 107°40'W.—54°15'N. Hudson's Bay Co. seems to have established the first fort on Green lake. It was built before 1795 at north end of lake. This post was seized by the North West Co. on December 21st, 1816 and again on March 17, 1817 and plundered. It was raided by Indians in the rebellion of 1885. The Company has maintained this post to date. About 1820 another Hudson's Bay Co. post was built at the south end of the lake.
The North West Co. erected their fort at the north end of the lake on the east shore of the bay, near the Hudson's Bay Co. fort. It was built before 1798 and probably immediately after the Hudson's Bay Co. had erected their fort. David Thompson met Fidler at the Green lake fort 1799 and was there in 1798.
Small North West Co. post on Green lake, source of Sable river flowing into the Spanish river opposite Manitoulin island. This post was taken over by Hudson's Bay Co. in 1821.
A small French fort on the Detroit river about 6 miles south of Detroit, probably opposite north end of Grosse Isle, near present Sibley. Was included in Bougainville's list 1757. Probably destroyed in Pontiac's War 1763.
A French seal and fishery station on lower St. Lawrence about 59° on north shore. It was built before 1738 and in that year was leased to Pommerau for 10 years. In 1749 his grant was extended to 1754. In 1754 it was granted to Hocquart and ratified by the King of France in 1760. Hocquart leased it to Taché in 1754 for 5 years. In 1761 Governor Murray granted a permit to Lafontaine to operate the post and in 1762 Murray granted Gros Méchatina to Gray for seven years 1762 to 1769. In 1804 it was sold to William Grant and in 1808 the Sheriff of Quebec sold the post. This post was included in Bougainville's list but was never operated by the Hudson's Bay Co. Its location is shown on map No. 24. It was situated about 5 miles north of Bay des Moutons opposite Isle Gros Mécatina and about 5 miles south of Ha! Ha! Bay. This bay was visited by Cartier. The post is marked Vieux Poste on Map No. 67. It appears on Del'Isle Map 1703 [No. 18].
Later name of Lesser Slave Lake fort (q.v.)
Small Hudson's Bay Co. post at the south end of Gwillim lake near portage over height of land to Cree lake and about 75 miles north of Ile à la Crosse lake, about 57°N and 107°30'W. It was marked abandoned on Tyrrell's map 1895, No. 41. (Report of Geol. Survey vol. VIII p. 36 D.)
Hudson's Bay Co. fort on Liard river, left bank, about 126° 30'W. at mouth of Smith river on west side. It was built soon after the union of 1821. It was abandoned about 1875 and a small post called Toad River Post was built near the mouth of Toad river on left bank of Liard river (See Map No. 90). This latter post was abandoned about 1890 and a post built on left bank Liard just above mouth of Dease river called Dease Post or Sylvester's Lower Post (See Map 90 and 91) afterwards called Lower Post.
The southernmost fort of Hudson's Bay Co. in Oregon Territory about 112°20'W & 43°N. In present Fort Hall Indian Reserve of Idaho, Map No. 92. It was built in 1834 by the American Fur Co. and sold by them to Hudson's Bay Co. in 1836. Is shown on the H. B. Co. map of 1857 by Arrowsmith No. 8. The Hudson's Bay Co. claimed indemnity for loss of this fort from United States in 1865. See Oregon Territory.
See Fort Rigolette.
Hudson's Bay Co. fort on James Bay at mouth of Harricanaw river, Hannah bay, 60 miles east of Fort Moose. It is shown on Arrowsmith map of 1796. As it is not included in the list of Hudson's Bay Co. posts at the date of union 1821, it was probably not in operation at that time. It must have been re-opened soon after for in 1832 the officer in charge, his family and several natives were murdered by Indians. It is included in the Hudson's Bay Co. lists of 1857, 1869 and 1872. It was closed before 1894. Shown maps No. 3, 8, 17, and 24.
Hudson's Bay Co. post on east shore of Hudson's bay, at Cape Dufferin, Portland Promontory, established 1920. Map No. 24.
Hudson's Bay Co. post on Great Slave lake at mouth of Hay river right bank. This post was opened about 1870 and appears on the Company list of 1872 for the first time. It is now abandoned. The original Hay river post was located at the junction of the two branches of Hay river. It was abandoned before 1845. Révillon Frères operate a post at the junction of the Hay and Meander rivers, called Hay River Post. Maps 21 & 25.
Historic Hudson's Bay Co. fortified post and the first of the interior forts built by the Company. It was erected to prevent encroachments of the French traders in 1741, on the north shore of the Albany river about 8 miles below the forks of the Kenogami and Albany rivers at the mouth of the Henley river, and about 150 miles up the Albany river. The French had erected a fort within 120 miles of Fort Albany, which later they had abandoned and the Hudson's Bay Co. erected a blockhouse near that place which commands the two branches of the river. It was in operation in 1759. Henry says that the French plundered Henley House in 1760—It was probably destroyed at that time, the French leaving for the seat of war in the east. It was rebuilt in 1764. Was in operation in 1774 and was listed among the Company posts at date of union 1821. It was probably closed soon after 1857 as it does not appear on the 1857 or later lists. Nothing was left of the old fort in 1880. Shown on maps Nos. 1, 3, 8, 12, 19, 24, 79, also 96 Rocque 1763 "an English Factory" & on No. 8 (1857)
Post built by William Henry 1812 on upper Athabaska river near confluence of Snaring river, about 8 miles below Jasper House village of today and about 20 miles above the last site of Jasper House, about 8 miles below confluence of Miette river. It was used as an outpost of Jasper House and was deserted about 1861. It is shown on map of early Alberta forts (No. 11) and on Arrowsmith's Hudson's Bay Co. map of 1832 (No. 101).
Alexander Henry Jr. built a Henry House in 1811 on the upper Athabaska river at the confluence of the Miette river, facing Yellowhead Pass. It was destroyed after two or three years.
Fortified post built by Alexander Henry Jr, September 1800 on west bank of the Red river about one-fourth of a mile from the confluence of the Park river (Little Salt river) Nor. Dakota about 48°30'N. It stood 30 feet above the river, and was enclosed by stockades 15 feet high. The building, Henry says, required 3,114 logs.
Recent post of the Hudson's Bay Co. at eastern extremity of Herschel island, shown on map No. 25. Established about 1920.
Fort on the Assiniboine river, on east side, about 12 miles upstream from Fort Pelly and about 5 miles above the North West Co. Fort Alexandria. It was originally built by the X. Y. Co. in 1803 and was taken over and operated by the North West Co. after their union in 1803. The Hudson's Bay Co. after the union of 1821, continued to operate Fort Hibernia for some years as it appears in operation on the Arrowsmith maps of 1832 (No. 101), and 1850 (No. 100) and 1857 (No. 8). It was closed before 1869 as it was not included in the Hudson's Bay Co. list of 1869. The proximity of Fort Pelly (built 1857) probably rendered Fort Hibernia unnecessary.
Hudson's Bay Co. fort at north end of Wrangell Is. (Alaska) opposite mouth of Stickeen river B. C. Built by James Douglas for McLaughlin 1839-1840 and called fort Durham by Douglas. It was afterwards known as Fort Highfield and is so named on Arrowsmith map 1857 (No. 8). This name was changed to Fort Wrangell and its site was at the present settlement on Wrangell Island. Fort Wrangell is shown on Heubach's map of Alaska 1897 (No. 84) and on Johnston's Map of Upper Yukon river 1887 (No. 122).
Small Hudson's Bay Co. post on west shore of Eabamet lake (Albany river, Ontario), 88°W & 51°30'N. It appears first on 1894 list of posts and of present date. Located a few miles north of the old North West Co. post on Eabamet lake, which post it probably succeeded; Shown maps No. 79, 57 and 54.
Hudson's Bay Co. fort on Fraser river at confluence of Coquihalla river, B. C. It marked the beginning of road from Fort Langley to Kamloops. Built about 1830. It constituted headquarters of mainland until Langley was selected. Appears on 1872 list of forts, but was almost deserted in 1862. Shown on map No. 3.
Hudson's Bay Co. post near head of Repulse Bay on south point near entrance to bay, north of Southampton island, Hudson Bay. It was established before 1850 and has been maintained to date. It appears on Arrowsmith map 1857 (No. 8) and 1850 (No. 100) and is called Fort Hope on both maps, also on map No. 6. In the list of posts of 1925 this post is named Repulse Bay.
See Fort La Tour.
Originally this was a North West Co. fort on the north bank of Peace river at the mouth of Middle river. Built by Simon Fraser 1805 as a base for his British Columbia explorations. It was known as "Rocky Mountain House, or Fort", also as "Old Hudson's Hope", and "Rocky Mountain Portage Fort". This post was operated by the Hudson's Bay Co. after coalition of 1821. It was abandoned for a time in 1825 to punish the Indians for the massacre at St. John in 1823. New Hudson's Hope was built about 1875 on the south bank about 12 miles further upstream from Old Hudson's Hope, at the east end of the portage, near east end of Cañon at its foot. Sometime after 1880 this post was again moved to its present location on the north side. Harmon in his journal 1810, October 15th, calls Hudson's Hope the "Rocky Mountain Portage Fort". Cust's House and an old Hudson's Bay Co. post are shown on Arrowsmith map 1832 (No. 100) at the west end of the portage from Rocky Mountain House. The location of the original fort is shown on the Dawson map 1879 (No. 81) and marked "abandoned". It is shown on Arrowsmith maps 1850 (No 100) and 1857 (No. 8).
A small Hudson's Bay Co. post built by Turner, surveyor for the Company, in 1776 and shown on his map 1790 (No. 106) on left bank of North Saskatchewan river about 80 miles above the Forks, in Section 32 Township 46 Range 3 west of 3rd. Meridian, about 4 miles north of Silver Grove. It was located 280 miles above Cumberland House of which it constituted an outpost and was then the uppermost settlement on the Saskatchewan River. Thompson was there in 1786, 1788 and 1794 and Henry Jr. in 1808. This house was occupied for some years.
Was built by Tomison 15 miles further down the river about 1788-1789 and named after George Hudson and employee of the Hudson's Bay Co. This was called "Lower Hudson House". It stood a short distance above the present Prince Albert and 3 or 4 miles below a place known as Yellow Banks.
Hudson's Bay Co. post on left bank of Peace River at mouth of the Nitikewin (or Battle) river, about 75 miles below Peace River P.O. Its location is shown on Wallace map of early posts in Alberta (No. 11) and on Map of Dept. Interior 1898 (No. 35). It was one of the very early posts, probably erected by North West Co. and taken over by Hudson's Bay Co. at union. In their List of 1869 it is called Battle River House. David Thompson was there in March 1804.
House of free-traders Ross and Thoburn built 1792-1793 on Saskatchewan river at Tobin or Grand Rapids about 14 miles above Sturgeon river. Alex. Henry Jr. in 1808 passed this "old establishment abandoned many years ago". It was in Tp. 54, R. 10, West of 2nd Meridian.
Hudson's Bay Co. post on right (E) bank of Rainy river about 3 miles from its outlet into Lake of the Woods, near Pointe aux Pins. It was established about 1850 and was included in the 1869 List of posts accompanying the Deed of Surrender, also in the 1872 List. It is shown on Map of N. W. Territory Dept. Interior 1878 (No. 16).
Small Hudson's Bay Co. post on Hunter's Narrows lake Keepaway, Quebec, on the bay at entrance of Hunter lake, a tributary of Keepawa lake. It was an outpost in the Temiscamingue district. Abandoned 1890. Shown on H. B. Co. Map 1857 (No. 8) and marked "abandoned" on Geological map 1908 (No. 123).
Hudson's Bay Co. fort on lake Ile-à-la-Crosse, Saskatchewan. At the bottom of a little bay opening eastward near south end of lake at end of long tongue of land and on west shore of lake at the mouth of Deep river or channel connecting with Clear lake. A little farther north is the site of former H. B. Co. fort.
Numerous trading posts of forts were built on the shores of Ile-à-la-Crosse lake by free traders, North West Co., and Hudson's Bay Co. The first fort was built by Thomas Frobisher on a peninsula on the west side of the lake in 1776, where the H. B. Co. fort was afterward built. In 1791, the North West Co. built on the west shore and in 1790 the Hudson's Bay Co. also constructed a fort, shown on Turner's map 1790 (No. 106). This fort was seized and burned by the "Canadians" about 1808. It was rebuilt by Fidler for the Hudson's Bay Co. in 1809. It was again seized by the North West Co. in 1817 and the occupants were imprisoned. Harmon was at the fort in August 1808 and described it as well-built. David Thompson was there in 1804. The Hudson's Bay Co. have maintained their fort since 1790.
Surrounding the lake the country is low and swampy. To the north, at the portage La Loche, the hills rise to 1000 feet. The name of the lake is derived from an island opposite the post where the Indians played lacrosse.
French fort on Ile-aux-Noix in Richelieu river (so named by Champlain in 1609 on his discovery of lake Champlain) 12 miles below outlet of lake Champlain. First fort was built 1759 by General Bourlamaque after the surrender of Fort Carillon (Ticonderoga) and St. Frédérick (Crown Point). It was surrendered to the English 25 August 1759 and afterwards rebuilt by them and named Fort Lennox (q.v.). This fort was captured by the Americans in 1775.
One of the King's posts in Domain du Roy, about 6 miles west of mouth of river Betsiamites (Bersemis) on north shore of St. Lawrence river about 68°30'W. It was named after Noel Jérémie an early trader and first settler in the district. It appears on Laure map 1733 (No. 109). Was established about about 1650. It was included in Bougainville's list of forts 1757. After cession of Canada, Dunn Gray & Murray operated the post. It was leased to the North West Co. in 1788 and to the Hudson's Bay Co. in 1821. In 1859 Governor Simpson closed the post at Ile Jérémie but continued to operate Bersimis. It is shown on Arrowsmith map 1857 (No. 8) and was included in H. B. Co. lists up to 1894 list when Bersimis appears and Ile Jérémie is omitted. It has been in constant operation since 1650. McKenzie 1808 says in his Journal that it was considered the best of the King's posts for furs. Shown on White's map of Labrador posts (No. 24).
See Lac-du-Bonnet Fort.
List of Indian Villages or Settlements around fortified posts under protection of the French as given by Bougainville 1757:-
Thompson mentions a free-trader's house under the name Isaac's House on the Saskatchewan river east of the Forks somewhere in Range 17 West of 2nd Meridian in 1794.
Hudson's Bay Co. fort on North Saskatchewan river near Englishman river and about 3 miles below Manchester House. It was attacked by Fall Indians in 1793, plundered and burnt. Indians were repulsed from North West Co. fort nearby. Later another Island House was built farther up Saskatchewan river above Fort George. Called also Fort Brulé, Fort d'Isle, and Burnt Fort d'Isle. Thompson was there in 1800.
Hudson's Bay Co. fort at the outlet of Island lake, Manitoba, west end of lake. Location shown on map No. 68. It appears on all the Company lists from 1869. It was originally located at Sagawechewan at east end of lake and was built before 1824. After a few years it was abandoned owing to scarcity of furs. About 1840 it was re-established half a mile south of present location. It was again abandoned until 1864 when Cuthbert Sinclair built on the present site. Island lake is 75 miles long and 50 miles wide at the widest part. There are 3400 islands.
A small Hudson's Bay Co. post at mouth of Isonglass or Old Factory river, James Bay, about 30 miles north of East Main river. Built before 1685, probably abandoned in 1686 temporarily when Forts Rupert, Moose and Albany were captured by the French. A mica mine was discovered on the river bank and was worked by the Company for some time, but unprofitably. The river, which empties into Moar's Bay, was called Mica, Isonglass, or Old Factory river. Shown on map No. 24 and the river on map No. 63.
French trading post on lower St. Lawrence, c. 60°W., built about 1733. Concession was granted to Lafontaine de Belcour by Beauharnois and Hocquart in 1733. In 1764 de Belcour sold to McKenzie & Lymburner who sold it to Wm. Grant in 1804. In 1808 it was sold by the Sheriff. Probably used by North West Co. Was rated as a Hudson's Bay Co. post in 1847. Does not appear on the Arrowsmith map 1857. Location shown on map No. 24. Was in Seigniory of Bellecourt.
Hudson's Bay Co. post at mouth of Jack river now called Gunisao river, Manitoba, on left bank. Built before 1819. Shown on maps of Arrowsmith 1832 (No. 101) and 1857 (No. 8). After the first Norway House was burned in 1825, the present Norway House was erected on the site of, or contiguous to, old Jack River House. See Norway House.
A small Hudson's Bay Co. post on Jackson Bay, southeast shore of Oxford lake, Ontario, York District. It was an outpost of Oxford House and was included in the Co. lists of 1869 and 1872. Shown on map No. 126.
Hudson's Bay Co. post on upper Athabaska river, Alta. Built 1799 at outlet of Brulé lake and called Rocky Mountain House. In 1801 Jasper Hawes took charge and moved the fort to left bank Athabaska river and about 16 miles farther upstream to present location at the outlet of Jasper lake. The second house was named after Jasper Hawes. At one time an important post. Practically abandoned by the Company in 1875. It was described by Milton & Cheadle in Northwest Passage by Land 1862, as "a neat white building surrounded by low palisades standing in a perfect garden of wild flowers, backed by dark green pines". Shown on maps No. 101, 100, 98, 8, & 127. It appears on H. B. Co. Arrowsmith map 1857 under both names.
Built by Governor Charles Temple 1659 at Jemseg on river St. John, N.B., near mouth of Jemseg river. Captured by Dutch force 1674. Rebuilt 1690 by Villebon but finally abandoned 1692.
A small Hudson's Bay Co. outpost on the Ottawa river at Les Joachims rapids about 50 miles below Mattawa on the north bank. This was probably a relief station on the canoe route between Montreal and Fort William providing rest on the journey after the 36 miles paddle up the "Deep River", as that portion of the Ottawa was called, from Allumettes. It was originally an old French trading post to which the North West Co. succeeded and, after 1821, the Hudson's Bay. Co.
Hudson's Bay Co. post on the shore of Labrador near Hopedale. It was built before 1790 by the French or other "Europeans". In 1836, D. R. Stewart of Quebec had the post. In 1837, the Hudson's Bay Co. bought out Stewart. It was included in the H. B. Co. list of 1857 and was maintained by the Company until 1879 when it was closed.
Hudson's Bay Co. post on lake Kakabonga, Temiscamingue district, about 40 miles east of Grand Lake Victoria. It was built before 1856 and was operated until about 1880 as an outpost of Ft. Temiscamingue. Superseded by Barrière post on lake Barrière tributary to lake Kakabonga. Was included in H. B. Co. lists of 1857, 1869 and 1872. Location of Barrière is shown on Gatineau sheet of Standard map.
Old French fort on site of present town Fort William. Ontario. Called also Fort Les Trois Rivières and spelled "Caministagouia". The first fort was built by Dulhut 1678. It was built of logs and was Dulhut's main trading post. Situated about half a mile from mouth of Kaministiquia river on the south shore of river. This fort did not last after about 1700. A second fort was built by Robutel de la Nouë in 1717. This fort was abandoned for some time after the cession of Canada. It was rebuilt by the North West Co. in 1800 on site of the old French fort of La Nouë and was called "New Fort". On union of the North West Co. and X.Y. Co. in 1804 it was again rebuilt as a very substantial fort and called Fort William (which see). The X.Y. Co. had a trading post and base of supplies in 1802 near New Fort. Fort Kaministiquia was included in Bougainville's List of Forts who says that it was "leased to M. Repentigny and the lease expires in 1758". At that time the French withdrew to Montreal and Quebec and the post was deserted, and soon destroyed by fire.
Hudson's Bay Co. fort on south bank of the South Thompson river opposite the confluence of the North Thompson river, B. C. Alexander Ross in 1812 first traded at the junction of the South Branch with the North Branch Thompson river. In the autumn of 1812 David Stuart built the first fort at Kamloops for the Pacific Fur Co. It was situated on practically the same site as the present fort and was known at first as the "Shewaps Fort", being named after a local tribe. The Northwest Co. on absorbing the Pacific Fur Co. (called the Astoria Co.) in 1813 took over fort Shewaps and named it fort Thompson after David Thompson, constructing a new fort (the second) on the east shore of the North Branch at the confluence. This fort was attacked by the Indians on several occasions. The Hudson's Bay. Co. acquired this fort on the union of 1821. McLeod was the factor from 1822 to 1826. The fort was well stockaded and included an enclosure for 300 horses. John Todd, who was the factor from 1842 to 1850, constructed a new fort (the third) opposite McLeod's Fort, on the west side of the North Thompson river and the name was now changed to fort Kamloops (meaning "Meeting of the Waters"). It was a large fort with several dwellings and a store and other buildings. The palisades were 15 feet high and were strengthened by two bastions. A forth fort, the present one, was built by Donald McLeod 1861-1862 (Factor from 1854 to 1862) on the south side of the South Branch opposite the confluence. It was triple gabled with overhanging eaves. It is still in good condition. This was always an important post. It is shown on Arrowsmith's map of 1832 (No. 101), on that of 1850 (No. 100) where both names are given, and on that of 1857 (No. 8). It is mentioned in all the Company lists up to 1872.
Hudson's Bay Co. post on the Fort George (or Big) river about 76°W., Quebec. Established 1921 and in operation to date.
Hudson's Bay Co. post established in 1834 as an outpost of Nichikun on lake Kaniapiskau, Quebec, about 54°N. and 70°W. It was given in the Company lists of 1857 and 1869. Low reported it in 1895 as having been abandoned for 25 years. It was probably operated only as an outpost. Its location is shown on maps No. 24 and 63.
French fort on right bank of Missouri river at mouth of Little Kansas river. It is named in Bougainville's list of 1757 as "having a garrison with commander dependent on New Orleans". It was probably an outpost of Fort Orleans a few miles further down the Missouri river. It is shown on Rocque's map of 1763 (No. 96), and Bellin's 1755 (No. 93) and D'Anville's 1755 (No. 97).
French fort on right bank of Kaskaskia river about five miles from its confluence with the Mississippi river. It was built of square logs. Burned in 1766. Kaskaskia, Illinois, was the first permanent white settlement in the Mississippi valley. Mission established by Marquette in 1675 for the Kaskaskia Indians near the present Utica, Ills., was removed in 1700 to site of Fort Kaskaskia. It was situated nearly opposite Fort Genevieve and a few miles below Fort Chartres (1720). Was surrendered to English in 1763 and was capital of that region for some time. Is named in Bougainville's list 1756 as dependent on New Orleans. Shown on Bellin's map 1755 No. 93, on d'Anville's 1755 ( No. 97), and on map French Possessions (No. 10).
Hudson's Bay Co. post on east bank Peace River, 60 miles above Fort Vermilion, near mouth of Keg river. It was sometimes called Fort du Tremble. Shown on H.B. Co. map 1857 (No. 8) and Map of North West Territory 1877 (No. 16). This fort was originally built by the North West Co. about 1800 or earlier, and is called by D. Thompson in 1804 "Old Fort du Tremble". Sometimes called De Tremble or Des Trembles.
Old French post at west end lake Melville, Labrador, opposite the outlet of Grand lake. Probably located on Carter Basin at the mouth of Kenemich river. It was built before 1799. Purchased by Hudson's Bay Co. 1836 and closed soon after. Location shown on White's map Labrador posts.(No. 24) and Low's map 1896 (No. 61).
Hudson's Bay Co. post at north end of lake Kenogamissi near source of Mattagami river, Ontario, about 30 miles southwest of Frederick House. It was built before 1798, one of the earliest inland posts dependent on Moose Factory. It was closed about 1850 and had been abandoned for many years before 1880. Location shown on map No. 24.
Hudson's Bay Co. post on lake Kikendatch, enlargement of St. Maurice river, about 9 miles above Gouin dam. Was originally an old French post in the King's Domain. It came to the Hudson's Bay Co. in the lease of the King's posts 1832. It is named in the lists of 1857 and 1894. Was closed shortly before 1900. It is shown on Arrowsmith maps of 1832 (No. 101) and 1857 (No. 8) also on White's map (No. 24).
See Fort Babine.
Extent of the Domain du Roy was 76 leagues on north shore of St. Lawrence from Black river (i.e. 5 leagues below Murray Bay) to river Cormorant (9 leagues below Sept lsles) and up the Saguenay river 200 leagues to lake Mistassini—Pointe-aux-Cormorants marked north-east extremity of the King's Domain and the beginning of Mingan Seigniory. Murray Bay parish was originally a part of the King's Domain until 1762, when Gen. Murray granted it to Major Nairn and Lieutenant Fraser but restricted them from trade with the Indians. Labrador coast from Mingan Seigniory was then free for trade to all. An account of the King's posts in the King's Domain was written by James McKenzie 1808 and found in Masson, Les Bourgeois &c, Series II page 405 et seq.
|Rouillé (Toronto) 1749.||Frontenac 1673.|
|Niagara 1678.||Little Portage 1753.|
|Presqu'Isle 1753.||R. au Boeuf 1753.|
|Machault 1753.||Duquesne 1753.|
|Baye des Puants 1670.||La Chine 1671.|
|De la Presentation 1718.|
Map of Domaine du Roy by Père Laure S.J. 1731(No. 109)
Hudson's Bay Co. post at outlet of East Channel, delta of Mackenzie river, recently opened.
Fortified post erected by Thompson for North West Co. in 1807 on the west side of Columbia river B. C. one mile down stream from the north end of lake Windermere, about one mile northwest of Athalmer and just north of Toby Creek. It was the first post erected in that region. Sometimes called Fort Kootanae. After the union of 1821 was operated by the Hudson's Bay Co. for some time and was included in the 1856 list of forts. Shown on map No. 6.
Hudson's Bay Co. fort at Kootenai Falls, Montana, on east bank. Built by North West Co. 1808. An outpost of Fort Colville. The H.B. Co. claimed indemnity from the U.S. for this fort. Shown on maps No. 12 Crown Lands 1857, Arrowsmith 1832 (No. 101), 1850 (No. 100) and 1857 (No. 8). Sometimes called Kootanie or Kootanais Fort. (Not to be confused with Kootenay House on the Columbia river B. C.).
The original name of Flying Post. q.v.
North West Co. post in basin of Columbia river, on east side of Kullyspell lake (lake Pend d'Oreille), 1½ miles from mouth of river, 48°11'30"N. Built by Thompson 1809 and named by him. It stood on a point extending into lake Pend d'Oreille between Hope and Clarks Fort stations on Northern Pacific Railway. Was maintained for only a few years.
French fort built by d'Iberville 1700, on Poverty Point, Mississippi river, 38 miles below New Orleans. It was the first fort built near mouth of Mississippi river on the river and marked the first settlement. Location shown on L't. Ross map 1765, page 174 in "First Great Canadian by C. B. Reed.
Small North West Co. post on lake à la Martre about 15 days travel north of Great Slave lake. Built by Leroux in 1789. Probably only a temporary post. On some old maps this lake is called Martin's lake.
A small trading post of North West Co. & H.B. Co. after 1821 on lac des Serpents near lac Ile à la Crosse, built by Roderic McKenzie 1786-87. Mentioned in Masson I pg. 17 Reminiscences of R. McKenzie. At east end of Snake lake, Churchill river, map No. 41 (1895). In charge of McGillivray 1786.
Hudson's Bay Co. post at south end of lac Barrière. Named on 1925 list of posts. Probably opened about 1900. A tributary lake to Grand Lake Victoria. Shown White's map 1926 (No. 24), also Nos. 130 and 131, and Standard Map Gatineau Sheet.
Another name for Fort William on Ottawa river.
The first fort on lac des Boeufs (now called Buffalo lake or Peter Pond lake), near Methye Portage, was built by the North West Co. in 1790. This post is shown on Arrowsmith maps 1832 (No. 101), 1850 (No. 100) and 1857 (No. 8) and marked "N. W. House". Macoun 1875 says "Buffalo House, at the north end of the lake opposite mouth of Pembina river, was deserted". This post was operated by the Hudson's Bay Co. after union 1821.
The second post on Buffalo lake was built by the Hudson's Bay Co. in 1791 at the south end on the point projecting south between Buffalo lake and Clear lake (now called Churchill lake). The present name of this post is Buffalo Lake House or Buffalo River post. Macoun 1875 says "at eastern end of the narrows and at the head of Clearwater lake is situated Chipewyan House". This post is still operated by H.B. Co.
Both posts shown on Tyrrell's map 1895 (No. 41).
McLean in his Notes of Twenty-five years Service says 1822 that the North West Co. and Hudson's Bay Co. had built adjoining posts on the Ottawa river at Chats Falls, probably about 1800. These posts were discontinued after the union of 1821.
An old French fort at Lake of the Two Mountains is named in Bougainville's List 1757. The Sulpicians obtained the seigniory of Montreal island in 1663 and established a mission at the fort, 12 leagues from Montreal. About 250 Indians, Nipissings, Algonquins, and Iroquois, traded at the post. The commerce was for the benefit of the priests and there was no French commander nor garrison at the fort in 1757. The site is now Oka on the north side of the river. The fort was probably built about 1660.
The Hudson's Bay Co. established a post on the Lake of Two Mountains in the spring of 1819 and the North West Co. also operated a post until the date of coalition 1821.
Hudson's Bay Co. post at outlet lake Des Roseaux on right bank of river Aux Roseaux, 96°W. and just south of 49°N. Trail led from here to Pembina and Fort Garry. This was the old Indian trail from Lake of the Woods to Red river. It is shown on Dawson map 1869 (No. 134).
A small Hudson's Bay Co. post on lac des Sables, Du Lièvre river, Quebec. McLean (Twenty-five years service &c) speaks of this fort in 1826 and gives the location "eight miles above the last rapid and portage". Rapide du Fort is at the outlet (south end) of the lake. It is shown on map No. 17 of 1839.
Moose Lake fort. A North West Co. fort on southeast end of Moose lake (Alberta) upper waters of the Beaver river, 54°15'N. & 110°50'W. Built by Angus Shaw in 1789 and hence sometimes called "Shaw House". Shown on map of early Alberta forts No. 11. Does not seem to have been continued after 1821.
A small North West Co. post west of Yellowhead Pass on present Moose lake near Tête Jaune Cache, enlargement of Fraser river, 53°N. & 119°W.
Moose Lake House on Moose lake, north of Cedar lake, about 50 miles east of The Pas. The North West Co. located on the north shore of lake about 1800. This post was included in their list of 1820. The Hudson's Bay Co. located on the west shore. It is included in their 1856 list and shown on Arrowsmith maps 1832 (No. 101) and 1857 (No. 8).
Originally a North West Co. post on lac-du-Bonnet, enlargement of Winnipeg river, about 25 miles above Fort Alexander. Built about 1800. Included in list of posts 1821. After coalition of 1821, this post was operated by the Hudson's Bay Co. and was named on their lists of 1856 and 1872. Name of Hudson's Bay Co. post was generally "Indian Cap Fort" and the lake was variously called, Cap lake, Cat lake, or Indian Cap lake. It is shown on maps No. 2, No. 7, No. 8, No. 21, and No. 86. Was on route from Lake of the Woods to lake Winnipeg.
Originally a North West Co. fort at east end of lake La Biche, tributary to Athabaska river. The outlet, La Biche river, flows into the Athabaska miles below Athabaska Landing, 54°45'N. & 112°W. Built by Thompson in 1798 who wintered there 1798-99. The lake was called by him Red Deer. The Hudson's Bay Co. succeeded to this fort in 1821 after the coalition. It was raided by the Indians in the rebellion of 1885. Appears to have been discontinued after 1912. It is shown on maps Nos. 35, 37 and 69. Lake La Biche is called Red Deers Lake on Arrowsmith maps 1832, 1850 & 1857 and the Athabaska river is given alternative names Elk or La Biche river.
Hudson's Bay Co. post on lake La Nonne (La Nun) tributary to Pembina river about 75 miles from its junction with the Athabaska river. Established about 1870 and closed before 1894. Shown on map No. 35.
See fort Rainy Lake.
The first fort on lac La Ronge was built by Peter Pond for the North West Co. in 1781 on the west shore of the lake as shown on Pond's map of 1785 (No. 82), Simon Fraser wintered there 1795-6 and Thompson was there in 1798.
The Hudson's Bay Co. fort was built about 1790 or 1800 at the north end of the lake. Shown on Arrowsmith maps 1832 (No. 101), 1850 (No. 100) and 1857 (No. 8). This fort was superseded by Rapid River fort before 1860, about 15 to 20 miles distant.
The H.B. Co. also operate a post on Big Stone lake about 5 miles beyond the outlet of Lac La Ronge known as Lac La Ronge post, shown on map of 1895 (No. 41).
Hudson's Bay Co. post on north shore of lac Seul, Ontario, at White Pine Narrows which are about three miles west of mouth of Canoe river. A long point projecting from the south shore here contracts the lake to about half a mile wide. The extremity of the point is conspicuous by a clump of white pines and the name, Obijikoka, (or "lake of White Pine Narrows"), which the Indians gave to Lac Seul, has reference to this locality. The lake was variously called Lac Sal, Sel, Saul, Salt, and lonely[sic]. The Hudson's Bay Co. recommended building the post in 1815 and it was established soon after that date and was included in the 1856 list of posts. It is described as a "fine group of buildings on a sandy shore". In operation to present date. Located on route from Fort Alexander to Osnaburgh House and James Bay. Shown on map No. 132. Now known as Pine Ridge Post. See Fort Mattawa.
Small Hudson's Bay Co. post on lake Traverse (between Minnesota and South Dakota) two miles from head of lake, near source of Red river. This post being on American territory was abandoned.
French fort built 1671 at head of Lachine rapids nine miles above Montreal. In the seigniory of La Salle. Mentioned in Bougainville's List 1757 who says that houses and stores of the King were located there. A King's post. The settlement was begun by La Salle in 1666 and the name La Chine refers to his belief that the Ottawa river led to the "Mer de l'Ouest" and thence to China. The fort was later named Fort Remy until 1760. In 1689 the settlement suffered from an incursion of the Iroquois when 200 inhabitants of the settlement were massacred and the village burned. Lachine became the centre of the fur trade before the cession of Canada and, afterwards, especially so under the North West Co. The Hudson's Bay Co. after union with the North West Co. in 1821, continued the trading post, called Lachine House, as centre of the fur trade via the St. Lawrence river, although the outlet for western furs was York Factory. The St-Lawrence-Ottawa River route was continued by the Hudson's Bay Co. for some time after the amalgamation in 1821 for local needs, and later the Lakes route and Yonge street portage (Toronto). But this route gradually declined in favour of James Bay. In 1851 Sir George Simpson's house was at Lachine and it was then the headquarters for the fur trade.
Canoes for the Grand Portage started from La Chine. These large canoes, called."Maitre Canôts", were of four tons burden and were manned by 8 to 10 men. They left La Chine in May, via Ottawa river, to Machilimackinac for additional supplies and provisions and arrived at Grand Portage early in July.
Both the Hudson's Bay Co. and the North West Co. had establishments at La Cloche. Situated on the north shore of the North Channel, Georgian Bay, about ten miles east of mouth of Spanish river. It was on the route from Montreal to the west via the Ottawa river. A. Henry Sr. says that the name was derived "from a rock standing on a plain which being struck rings like a bell". No fort was there in 1761 when A. Henry passed, nor in 1789 when Roderick McKenzie passed. The North West Co. probably built the first post about 1790. The post was mentioned by McLean in 1833 and was visited by Sir George Simpson 1841. It is included in the Hudson's Bay Co. lists 1820 to 1872 and is shown on Arrowsmith maps 1832 (No. 101) and 1857 (No. 8) and on map 133. Located at mouth of outlet of lake La Cloche.
French fort built by ten voyageurs sent ahead by de Niverville in 1751, on the Saskatchewan river near site of present city of Calgary. Named after the Governor of New France. St. Pierre in his Memoirs (Masson) says that it was a stockaded fort. It was not maintained after the French withdrew in 1759.
On its site in 1875 Capt. Brisebois of the Royal North West Mounted Police founded a post called Fort Brisebois which grew to be the city Calgary. Capt. Brisebois stated that he had found traces of old fort La Jonquière on the spot.
The North West Co. erected a fort about 50 miles west of old La Jonquière in 1802 to which the name Bow River Fort was given. This fort was closed about 1823.
Small post built by Hudson's Bay Co. on west shore of Lake of the Woods on or near the site of the old French fort St. Charles (q.v.). It was named in the list of posts in the Deed of Surrender 1869 but does not appear on later lists. The North West Co. had a post of like name on the left (west) bank of Rainy river near entrance to Lake of Woods.
An early French post established about 1650 at mouth of Metabetchouan river, east bank, near the shore of lake St. John. Sometimes called fort Metabetchouan. It is shown on Père Laure's map 1731 (No. 109) as Metabetchouan and marked "Ancien Etablissement et Mission". The post was on the site of the first Jesuit Mission to lake St. John, and was probably founded a little later than Chicoutimi. It was one of the posts in Traite de Tadoussac and was listed by Bégon in 1720 as a King's post. In 1766 it was spoken of as dependent post on Chicoutimi. It was leased by the North West Co. in 1788 with the other posts in the King's Domain, and was included in their list 1821 at the time of union. McKenzie 1808 visited the post and says "lake St. John post is on the south shore, 4 leagues from the entrance at the mouth of a beautiful river where the Jesuits formerly were located".
The Hudson's Bay Co. acquired this post at the union of 1821. It is shown on their map of 1846 and included in the list 1857. Soon after 1864 this post was removed to Pointe Bleue on the west shore of the lake and is now called Pointe Bleue post. The old French fort may have been destroyed in the great fire of 1870. Shown on Maps Nos. 17, 24, 95.
Called also La Tourette or Latourette. Built by Charles Dulhut, Sieur de la Tourette, in 1684, at mouth of Ombabika river, on northeast shore of lake Nipigon. Dulhut in 1684 wrote to M. de la Barré, Governor of New France, mentioning the fort which he had built on the river A la Maune at the head of lake Alempigon (Nepigon). It is shown on Jaillot's map of 1685 and 1696 marked "Poste du Sr. Duluth pour empêcher les Assiniboels et autres sauvages de descendre à la Baye de Hudson". (Map No. 117). It is also shown on La Hontan map of 1703. The route to Hudson Bay from lake Nipigon by the Ombabika, Ogoki, and Albany rivers, was first discovered by a Canadian named Perré and old maps show a river de Perré from lake Nepigon to Hudson Bay. See maps No. 19 and 18, 67 and 68.
Vérendrye was in charge of fort La Maune in 1726. The fort was maintained by the French until the cession of Canada, lake Nepigon being the headquarters of the French fur traders in that region. The fort was probably destroyed at the time of, or soon after, the departure of the French garrison. Neither the North West Co. nor the Hudson's Bay Co. included this fort in their various lists. (See Nipigon House). A map of 1737 shows a fort at the north end of lake Nipigon probably meant for fort La Maune.
Seven forts are named by Bougainville (1757) as comprising the department of the west called "La Mer de l'Ouest". "These seven forts," he says, " were stockaded and ordinarily have a garrison of one or two officers, with 7 or 8 soldiers, and 80 Canadian engagés. They merit attention principally for two reasons, first, because they are next to the establishments of the English on Hudson Bay, and, second, because from these posts it will be possible to discover the Mer de l'Ouest, but for this discovery it will be necessary for the voyageurs to forsake their commercial interests".These forts were:
|St. Pierre||on left bank Rainy river (at outlet).|
|St. Charles||on peninsula extending into Lake of Woods.|
|Bourbon||at entrance to lake Winnipeg (from Saskatchewan river).|
|De la Reine||on right bank Assiniboels river (junction of Red and Assiniboine rivers).|
|Dauphin||on river Eau Trouble (northwest shore of lake Manitoba).|
|Paskoia||on river of that name 180 leagues from Dauphin (mouth of Pasquia river).|
|Des Prairies||80 leagues from Paskoia (Ft. à la Corne). (See under each name.)|
North West Co. fort on North Saskatchewan river about 3 miles upstream from Carlton House on north side of river. Built about 1797. Was used chiefly as a provision station and was one of their principal meat depots, supplying 300 bags of pemmican yearly. Montée means Ascending or Crossing place, referring to the fact that here canoes were exchanged for horses, if going north to Green lake and Beaver river or south to south Saskatchewan river at Batoche. "A mounting place for horses".
Small trading post about 18 miles east of Portage la Prairie on Assiniboine river. Shown on Hind's map of expedition 1858.
Hudson's Bay Co. fort near the mouth of the Fraser river, B. C. Built in 1827. Destroyed by fire and rebuilt 1840. The first fort on the mainland of lower British Columbia. Erection of this fort secured the British occupation of B. C. It was used as a depot for the north and included in lists of posts in operation until about 1885. Shown on the H.B. Co. maps No, 8, 101, 100.
Hudson's Bay Co. post on right bank of Bell river, tributary of the Porcupine river, Yukon. Situated a few miles upstream from Fort McPherson. It was built by the Hudson's Bay Co. in 1847 and abandoned in 1890. Shown on Arrowsmith map 1857 (No. 8).
Small French fort of logs, palisaded, situated near or at the present La Prairie, Que., below Lachine rapids. It protected the route from Montreal, Richelieu river and lake Champlain to Fort Carillon (Ticonderoga), and was probably built about 1650 for defence against the Iroquois. It was mentioned in Bougainville's list 1757 as abandoned.
French fort on south shore Strait of Mackinac, entrance to lake Michigan. An Indian village, fort, and settlement, and a Jesuit mission called St. Ignace. It was surrendered to the British 1760 and visited by Alex. Henry 1761. At the outbreak of Pontiac's rebellion the garrison was withdrawn on June 21, 1763, to Ft. Michilimackinac, and the fort was seized by Pontiac and burned. The first fort was built by La Salle in 1679. Named on some maps as Ft. St. Ignace. Shown on Bellin's map 1744 No. 15, on Palairet 1755 No. 119, on D'Anville 1755 No. 97, on Le Rouge 1755 No. 112.
French fort on north bank of Assiniboine river at Portage la Prairie, portage of 12 miles to lake Manitoba. Built by Vérendrye in 1738. It was first called Maurepas, then changed to La Reine. The Assiniboine river was then called St. Charles and rivière des Assiniboels. The first fort was burned by the Indians about 1750. It was rebuilt by St. Pierre 1752. Again burned by Indians 1752, and St. Pierre retired to old fort Rouge for the winter of 1752-53. St. Pierre describes this second fort as having bastions and several adjoining buildings, one a magazine. It was again rebuilt (the third fort) about 1753-54, but was abandoned in 1756 when the French garrisons were drawn east. After the cession of Canada it was still standing in 1767 and was visited by British traders in that year. Bougainville 1757 mentions fort La Reine as being 70 leagues from Fort Bourbon, in the midst of vast prairies, and the route to the Missouri from the north.
The Northwest Co. had a fort at Portage la Prairie mentioned in McDonnell's journal 1794 and the Hudson's Bay Co. were located near by.
La Reine is shown on Bellin's map 1755 No. 93, on Rocque's 1761 No. 96 where it is called Queen's Fort, on Pond's map 1785 No. 82. Fort La Reine was probably occupied by the Hudson's Bay Co. until they built on its site in 1796. See Portage la Prairie.
North West Co. fort at mouth of La Vase river, lake Nipissing, south-east bay, at the terminus of the portage. Originally at the mouth of the Vase river and afterwards moved to an island in the lake. The Hudson's Bay Co. post was called Nipissing House (q.v.).
See Lac La Ronge.
Hudson's Bay Co. post on Canadian National R'y. near river La Sarre which flows from lake Macamic to lake Abitibi, about 9 miles from old fort Abitibi, which fort was superseded by La Sarre on the railway about 1914. See Abitibi.
French fort at mouth St. John river, N.B. Built by Claude de la Tour 1631, on Portland Point, east side of St. John harbour. Attacked by Charnisay 1643 and again in 1645, and finally captured by Charnisay 1645 and the garrison massacred and fort destroyed. Charnisay then built Fort Charnisay on the opposite side of harbour. Fort Charnisay was also known as fort La Tour. The name was again changed to fort Martignon 1672 when Sieur Martignon obtained the grant of St. John. In 1700 it was named Fort St. Jean. About 1750 it was rebuilt by French and called fort Menagoueche. It was soon abandoned. In 1758 General Moncton rebuilt the fort and named it Fort Frederick and it was sometimes called Fort Moncton. In 1775 the fort was destroyed by the Americans. In 1778 Fort Howe was built on the hill above Portland Point. Finally abandoned 1821.
Fort La Tour is shown on D'Anville's map of 1755 (No. 97) also Vieux Fort & Establishments Français a few miles further upstream.
See fort La Maune.
First fort built by free-trader Frobisher 1772, on Churchill river (called also English river) near mouth of Deer river, outlet of Reindeer lake, near Frog Portage (q.v.) on north side of Churchill river. Shown on map No. 3. Another fort was built by Henry in June 1776 at "Portage de Traite". The North West Co. succeeded to these forts which they maintained to time of Union 1821. Hudson's Bay Co. post was nearby & was called Rapid River fort, which see.
La Traite was also called Frog Portage fort and fort Du Traite.
Hudson's Bay Co. post on Leaf Bay, at mouth of Leaf river, Ungava Bay. Established about 1905 and operated to date.
English military fort built 1812-1818 on site of old French fort (1759) named fort Isle-aux-Noix, Richelieu river (q.v.). French fort was captured by the English 25 August 1759. New fort built 1812-1818 was named Lennox from family name of Charles, Duke of Richmond, the Governor General 1816-19. Fort Lennox was captured by the Americans 1775. After treaty of Paris 1782 fort was maintained by English garrison until 1869 when it was finally abandoned.
Free-trader's post on Red river about 45½ miles above Pembina, 48°23'34"N, and 5½ miles south of Salt river. See Red River Forts.
North West Co. erected first fort, at west end of lake, before 1802. It was visited by Thompson 1802. This was probably the fort known as Blondin's fort (q.v.).
Hudson's Bay Co. also built at west end of lake before 1817. This fort was seized by the North West Co. in 1817. Both forts were combined after union of 1821. The present name is Fort Grouard dating from about 1900. Maps, No. 5, 6, 8, 100 & 101.
French fort on right bank Mississippi river above the mouth of Wood river (r. Des Bois), about 18 miles down stream from fort L'Huiltier. It is marked "destroyed" on Bowen map 1763 (No. 98). De Lisle map of 1703 (No. 18), D'Anville's 1794, Jeffery's 1762, Bellin 1755 (No. 93), D'Anville 1755 (No. 97), Rocque 1763 (No. 96), Palairet 1755 (No. 119) all show Fort Le Sueur, but varying in location.
See Fort Kaministiquia.
French fort on south side of St. Lawrence river nearly opposite Fort Frontenac. Erected by the French 1759 on Isle Royale (5 miles east of present town Prescott). Surrendered to the English August 1760 who renamed it Fort William Augustus. Shown on map No. 10.
French fort on right bank St. Peter's river (now called Minnesota river), 44 leagues up the St. Peter's river, at junction of the Verte river (now Green river), built 1700. This fort was destroyed and on its site in 1739 was built fort Verde (Vert), which was destroyed before 1763 (either by the French garrison on leaving, or by Indians under Pontiac.) It is marked "destroyed" on Bowen map 1763 (No. 98). Shown on Del'Isle map 1703 (No. 18) and on maps No. 96, 97, 119, and 111. Sometimes spelled L'Hillier, and L'Huillier.
English fort in Bedford County, Pennsylvania. Originally a French fort near Fort De la Nécessité. Shown map No. 10 and Rocque's map 1763 (No. 96). Was included in Bougainville's list 1757. It was attacked during Pontiac's rebellion but the Indians were repulsed June 21, 1763. During the American revolution this fort was occupied by Washington as headquarters for a time.
A North West Co. repair station on the northeast promontory of Manitoulin Island, opposite Grand Cloche Island. Boats and canoes were made and repaired here. It was situated about half way between Montreal and Fort William and all canoes travelling on the route passed through the narrow strait called Little Current.
Hudson's Bay Co. post in Norway House district at north end of Family lake, Manitoba, about 12 miles from eastern boundary of Manitoba. Named after Little Grand rapids in Berens river. Established about 1848 by Wm. McKay then in charge of Beren's river post. It has been operated to date. Supplies were formerly sent to this post from York Factory by york boats via lake Winnipeg and Berens river. The last york boat was used in 1871.
See Red River fort.
North West Co. fort on right bank of Mackenzie river, 80 miles north of Great Slave lake and about 16 miles downstream from mouth of Trout river, 61°27'N. Built by Duncan Livingston for the Co. in 1796. Was the first fort built on the Mackenzie river north of Great Slave lake. Livingston and his men were murdered by Esquimaux. This fort is mentioned in Wentzel's Letters (Masson vol. 1). It is marked "Old Fort" on Arrowsmith map 1832 (No. 101) also on map of Topographical Survey 1923 (No. 25).
Originally a North West Co. fort at the outlet of Long Lake source of Kenogami river, a branch of the Albany river. On the northwest side, opposite mouth of Ground river, about 1¼ miles from the outlet as described by Dr. Bell, Geological Survey, 1870. It was built about 1800 and probably on the site of an old French post. Portage route from south end of the lake by Black river to lake Superior and from the north end by Ground river, McKay lake, Steel lake and Mountain lake to Jackfish bay. The North West Co. fort was taken over by the Hudson's. Bay Co. 1821 and has been regularly operated to date. Shown map 1832 (No. 101), 1857 (No. 8) and No. 3.
Hudson's Bay Co. post on a long point extending from the north shore, near the centre, of lac Des Quinze (Ottawa river). It was in operation in 1897 and on the 1894 list, but not on earlier or later lists. An outpost from Temiscamingue probably built about 1872 and closed about 1900. Shown on map No. 135.
French fort on the Ottawa river, six miles from lake of Two Mountains. Location is shown on map No. 2. Bougainville says of this fort: "It is situated on the south bank of Grand or Ottawa river, as Carillon is on the north bank, at foot of rapids, about six leagues from lake of Two Mountains. These two little posts have been established for trading with passing Indians, Nipissings, Algonquins and Iroquois". The Marquis de Vaudreuil was commandant of Longue Sault in 1757. Situated at present Point Fortune.
French fortified post and village of Huron Indians to which they were removed in 1697 after destruction of Jesuit missions in Huronia by the Iroquois. It was located near Quebec on a branch of the St. Charles river—the present Lorette.
On Cape Breton Island. Built in 1713. It was captured by New Englanders under Pepperell in 1745 and returned to France 1748 by Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle. Captured by English under Amherst, July 26, 1758.
See fort Vermilion (2).
Hudson's Bay Co. fort on Red river, 19 miles from Upper Fort Garry, at St. Andrews. Built 1831-33. Strengthened with loop holes and bastions 1841. Surrounded by massive stone wall with bastions. It was the strongest of the Company's forts, next to Fort Prince of Wales. In 1843 it was the residence of the Governor of Rupert's Land and seat of government. It was often called the Stone Fort and is so named on Arrowsmith map 1850 (No. 100).
See Hudson's House.
Known also as Nipawi, Nepiwa, Neepoin, Nippewean, Nepowewin and Fort Des Prairies or Aux Trembles.
Old French fort on south side of Saskatchewan river, about 100 miles above The Pas, just below the Nipawin rapids and about 3 miles below the Cadotte rapids. Built about 1748. This fort is mentioned by Sir A. McKenzie who calls it Nepawi House. It was regularly operated by the French until the cession of Canada and was abandoned about 1763. After the French, the first English trader to reach the locality was James Finlay who in 1767 either occupied the old French fort or constructed Finlay's House (q.v.) nearly opposite on the north bank. Finlay wintered there in 1771-72, also 1775-76, and Cadotte of the Hudson's Bay Co. and A. Henry Sr. were there in 1776, and Thompson in 1808. After the formation of the North West Co. in 1783, the old French fort was occupied by that Company and it was called "Nepoin" fort. Porter and McLeod of the North West Co. were in charge in 1794. About 1808 the Company abandoned the old fort. A. Henry Jr. passed "the old establishment at the Nepawee" on August 30, 1808, apparently deserted. The old French fort is shown on Franklin's map and the North West Co. "Nepoin" on Thompson's map 1812 (No. 7). Fort à la Corne (St. Louis) was known as Upper Nipawi and Nepoin as Lower Nipawi. Location of the Nipawin rapids is shown on maps No. 37 & 42, and the old fort on maps No. 3, 10, 12.
Hudson's Bay Co. post at confluence of Dease and Frances rivers forming the Liard. It was a small outpost attached to Ft. Frances, upstream about 60 miles. Shown on modern maps also on Map Upper Yukon 1887 (No. 122).
See Fort Assiniboine.
See Old Red River House.
North West Co. fort at north end of lake McLeod, British Columbia, built by Simon Fraser for the Company in 1805. This is said to have been the first post erected in B. C. After the union of 1821 this post was operated by the Hudson's Bay Co. to date. Maps No. 8 100 & 101.
North West Co. fort on left bank of Peace river just below mouth of Smoky river, a few miles below Fort of the Forks. Was well-built with a stockade and 5 bastions. After the union of 1821 the Hudson's Bay Co. operated this fort for some time. It appears on their 1857 map No. 8 also map No. 3. Built in 1791.
An X.Y. Co. fort was built nearby.
Originally built by North West Co. on the west bank of Athabaska river, opposite mouth of Clearwater river, in 1790, and named Fort of the Forks. The Hudson's Bay Co. took over this fort in 1821 and about 1875 rebuilt on site of the old fort and name was then changed to Fort McMurray. It appears on their 1869 list as Fort of the Forks. Maps No. 3, 5 and 16.
Hudson's Bay Co. post in Mackenzie district on right bank of Peel river about 24 miles from the outlet, 67°25'N. Built by trader John Bell in 1840. Sometimes called Fort Peel River, or Peel River House, or Fort Bell. Shown on maps No. 8 and 25.
French fort near confluence of river Au Boeuf and the Alleghany. It was included in Bougainville's list 1757. A palisaded log fort, the last entrepôt for Fort Duquesne, built by Marin for Governor Duquesne in 1753. A King's post. With other forts it commanded the route from Presqu'Ile, lake Erie, to the Ohio river. It was probably destroyed by the French when the garrison withdrew to Detroit in 1759. Rivière au Boeuf is now called French Creek. Shown on map No. 10.
An "old fort" is shown on Rinfret map of North West Territories in Dr. Coue's Henry-Thompson travels (No. 3) on right bank of Mackenzie river opposite mouth of Dahadinni river, about 64°N. No trace of this fort now remains.
French fort built by Paul de Chomedy, Sieur de Maisonneuve, at Point Callière, site of present Customs House, Montreal. Built in 1642 of wood and palisaded. Maisonneuve was Governor for 22 years. This fort for over quarter of a century was continually attacked and harassed by the Iroquois. It bore the brunt of the Indian attacks and protected the settlements farther down the river. Because of the natural advantages of its situation, control of large part of the fur trade was soon transferred to it, and it became the base for outfitting and departure of exploring expeditions to the West.
French fortified King's Post in the Domain du Roy included in list of King's posts in the Decree of Intendant Hocquart 1733. Now known as Murray Bay named after General Murray of Seigniory of Malbaye (so called from the poor anchorage). Malbaye parish was originally part of King's Domain until 1762 when General Murray granted it to Major Nairn and Lieut. Fraser but restricting them from trading with the Indians. In 1760 Bigot ordered an inventory taken at Malbaye. Pere Laure's maps of 1730 and 1731 (No. 110 & 109) of the King's Domain show this post.
Hudson's Bay Co. post, originally called South River fort, at junction of Kenogami and Kabinakagami rivers, Ontario, about 75 miles south of Henley House. It was established before 1832 as South River House and is so named on Arrowsmith map 1832 (No. 101) also on Arrowsmith 1848 and 1857 (No. 8). This post was included in the 1857 list. About 1860 it was closed and re-established about 30 miles further down the river and named New Post at mouth of Wabashi river on right side. About 1880 New Post was moved back to the old site (Mamattawa) and then named English River House. Under this latter name it appears on the 1894 list and 1925. Mamattawa (sometimes written Mamawimattawa) is the contraction of an Indian word signifying "the coming together of many branches". Two large tributaries here join the river from the east and both of these receive branches near their mouths. See maps No. 52 & 78[sic].
Hudson's Bay Co. post on north bank of North Saskatchewan river, 42 miles above Battleford and 425 miles above Cumberland House. It was located above the Forks and about 3½ miles above the mouth of "Horse Creek" (now Englishman river). It was built by D. Thompson in 1786 who resided there that year and again in 1793. A trail from South Branch House led to Manchester House. Fort Pitt was erected in 1831 a few miles distant and Manchester House was closed about 1860. It was plundered by the Indians in the autumn of 1793. The North Branch of the Saskatchewan was known as Rivière du Pas. Shown on Turner's map 1790 (No. 106) also on Arrowsmith maps No. 8, 100, 101.
Hudson's Bay Co. establishment on lake Manitoba, near the Narrows, on west shore south of entrance to Ebb and Flow lake. Built before 1850. Was in poor condition in 1858 and the old buildings, which had been a R. C. mission sold to the Company, were burnt in 1859. It was rebuilt very soon. Appears on the Company lists to 1894. Shown on Map No. 43, 8, 100 & 101.
Hudson's Bay Co. post on Albany river about 115 miles upstream from Henley House. Established in 1794. This post was operated by the Company until 1922-23 when it was closed. It is included in lists of posts 1857, 1869, 1894 and shown on maps No. 8 and 79.
Small Hudson's Bay Co. outpost of Whale River post, probably at north end of lake Manuan, upper waters of Whale River flowing into south end of Ungava Bay. Built before 1844. Shown on map No. 24. Called also Manewan post.
Hudson's Bay Co. fort on lake Matachewan, enlargement of Montreal river, Ontario, near the height of land and the Great Northern bend of Montreal river. Built before 1850. Shown on maps No. 71, 24 and Standard map, Gowganda sheet No. 135.
Situated near the centre of lake Mattagami, Ontario, as shown on maps No. 24 & 137. It was shown on Jeffrey's map of 1762 and was probably an old French fort and outpost of Fort St. Germain. After the cession of Canada it became one of the North West Co. forts and was taken over by the Hudson's Bay Co. in 1821 at the union. It was included in their lists of 1857, 1869, 1872 and 1894. Closed about 1900.
Called also Matawagamingne.
Hudson's Bay Co. post originally built about 1872 at junction of Mattawa and English rivers, Ontario, (outlet of Pakwash or Shallow lake) on north bank, see maps No. 79 and 57. A small Indian village was located nearby. About 1923 this post was moved about 60 miles to the east near the east end of Lac Seul at Pine Ridge on the north shore and the name was changed to Pine Ridge Post (Maps No. 138 & 79). See Fort Lac Seul. Fort Mattawa was apparently an outpost of Fort Lac Seul and later was combined with it, Lac Seul having been established 1815.
North West Co. post at junction of Mattawa and Ottawa rivers. It was first built by the North West Co. about 1784, probably on the site of an old French fort. It was an important station on the canoe route from Montreal to Fort William, the route here leaving the Ottawa river. Another route proceeded north by lake Timiscamingue to Fort Abitibi and James Bay. The North West Co. followed the Mattawa route to the west (the old French route) until about 1800 when the lake route via Yonge Street was adopted, although the Mattawa route was in constant use for a century. Mattawa House was maintained by the North West Co. as an outpost of Fort Timiscamingue and after the union of 1821 the Hudson's Bay Co. continued to operate the post. After the opening of the Canadian Pacific Railway, Mattawa became the headquarters of posts in that region for a decade. Gradually declining in importance it was finally closed about 1915.
Old French fort at mouth of Winnipeg river on the north side, some distance above the mouth and near the present fort Alexander. It was built by Vérendrye's eldest son in 1733-34. It was burnt by the Indians about 1747 and rebuilt by Vérendrye's son in 1748. It was again destroyed at some time before 1763. It is not mentioned in Bougainville's list of 1757. When Alexander Henry passed in 1775, there was no trace of it left except the clearing. John McDonnell of the North West Co. passed the mouth of the Winnipeg river in 1793 and speaks of the old French fort that stood on the northeast side of the river on a high knoll. This fort is shown on maps No. 12, 19, 95, 92. On Jeffrey's map 1762 the Winnipeg river is called the Onessipi or Maurepas. The fort was named after Count Maurepas, Minister of Colonies. In 1792 Toussaint Le Sieur of the North West Co. built a fort a few miles distant from the site of Fort Maurepas on the south side of the river. This was called "Bas-de-la-Rivière" fort, and sometimes Le Sieur's fort. The Hudson's Bay Co. also built nearby and their fort was called Fort Alexander. The present fort Alexander was built on the site of the old North West Co. fort.
A second small fort Maurepas was built in the autumn of 1734 by Vérendrye's son Pierre on the Red river, 5 leagues upstream from the mouth, on a point commanding a distant view. It stood on the left bank of the river, about 6 miles below the present Selkirk, where the shores are steep and high. This fort was soon destroyed.
See Fort Biloxi.
See Fort La Tour.
See Lake St. John.
Old Hudson's Bay Co. fort probably established about 1790 at the north end of the lake, shown on map No. 41, at the beginning of Methye portage. Methye lake was also known as La Loche lake. Arrowsmith map of 1857 (No. 8) places the fort at the south end of the lake. The old fort was also called "Portage La Loche" fort. Maps 100 & 101.
See Portage La Loche.
French fort, first built by La Salle in 1678, on the Illinois river, called also fort Des Miamis. It was on the right bank of the river, built of logs and palisaded. It was included in Bougainville's list 1757. Surrendered to British 1761. Captured by Pontiac May 27, 1763. Destroyed before 1794. Shown on maps No. 97, 98, 119, 111.
A second French fort Miami was built soon after 1670 on the Miami (now the Maumee) river, Indiana, upon the site of which fort Wayne was constructed about 1790. This fort was included in Bougainville's list 1757 and marked the commencement of the portage to rivers flowing southwest. It was surrendered to the British in 1761 and captured by Pontiac 1763. Its location was the centre of the powerful Indian nation of Miamis. Shown on maps No. 111, 96, 119, 10, 98, 97, 93.
Hudson's Bay Co. outpost of Fort Nascopie, at outlet of lake Michikamau, about 50 miles above Grand Falls in Hamilton river, Labrador. Established about 1840, was included in the Company list 1869, and following the re-establishment of Fort Chimo in 1880, it was abandoned. Shown on Low's map No. 61.
Originally established by Père Marquette as a mission station in 1668 at Point St. Ignace near the mouth of St. Mary's river at the entrance to lake Michigan on the north side of the straits. The first fort and settlement was established by La Salle in 1679 on the south shore of the strait. The Marquette post was deserted in 1706. In 1712 Vaudreuil, Governor General, sent De Louvigny to re-establish the fort, which he did, building it on the south side of the strait, at a place now known as "Old Mackinaw". It was almost entirely destroyed by fire December 22, 1762, and was largely rebuilt when in 1763 the garrison was massacred by Indians under Pontiac. The British again took possession in 1764 and remained in occupation until 1781. A new fort was then erected on Michilimackinac island about 8 miles distant. After the American revolution this fort passed to the United States in 1781.
Michilimackinac means Great Turtle from shape of the island. The old French fort in 1761 had an area of 2 acres enclosed with palisades near the water's edge. On the bastions were 2 small brass canon which had been captured by d'Iberville from forts Albany and Hayes in 1686. There were 30 houses and a church within the stockade. This fort was the place of deposit and departure between the upper and lower countries. Here outfits were prepared by the traders and returns in furs collected and embarked for Montreal. It was the entrepôt to the Mississippi and Missouri valleys during the French regime and also to the west and northwest and was a considerable centre for western trade. After the French regime this was the point of union and commerce of the different merchants of Canada who were not in the North West Co. In 1779 a partnership of traders, termed a "General Store", was formed at Michilimackinac, and a union of the traders was formed in 1785 by pooling stocks. This was known as the Michilimackinac Company.
French fort on Michipicoten bay, lake Superior, at the mouth of Magpie river, on the south side. It was one of the old French forts said to have been built long before 1750 (possibly about 1700) and spoken of as an old fort in 1765. It was one of the chief French forts on lake Superior and is mentioned by Bougainville in his list of 1757 as corresponding to Fort "Kamanistigwia" at the northwest limit of lake Superior. It commanded the route by way of Missinaibi lake and river to Moose river and James bay. During the French regime the posts on the north shore of lake Superior constituted the main source of fur supply from the west and northwest. In 1739 Beauharnois granted to Marin and Douville a congé de traite at the post of Michipicoten.
After the cession of Canada, the North West Company took over this fort. A. Henry wintered there in 1767. At the date of union 1821 both the North West Co. and the Hudson's Bay Co. operated posts at Michipicoten. In 1821 the Hudson's Bay Co. took over the old fort and maintained it until about 1900 when it was closed. For many years this factory was the principal Hudson's Bay Co. post on the north shore of lake Superior, from which a number of smaller posts in the interior were supplied. The route to James bay occupied about 16 days. It was a superior post with many and large buildings situated on the south side of the river about half a mile from the mouth. Its location is shown on Arrowsmith map of 1796 and 1832 (No. 101).
Hudson's Bay Co. post on the east shore of lake Paskagama, about 30 miles north of the C.N.R. Monet station, Quebec, in the Abitibi district. Established before 1830 and shown on the Arrowsmith map of 1832 (No. 101). In 1825, "Canadians", (King's Posts Co.) also maintained a post. This post is included in the 1857 list and shown on the Arrowsmith map of 1857 (No. 8). It was named in the lists of 1869 and 1872 and was probably closed about 1890. Shown on maps No. 24 and 63. Sometimes called Mechiskan and Michiskun.
An old Hudson's Bay Co. post on Migiskan river, about 40 miles below Fort Migiskan, and 10 miles below Shabogama lake, Quebec. It was closed about 1880 and had been used as an outpost of Fort Migiskan. Shown on maps No. 24 and 63.
A small relay station and store house for provisions maintained by the North West Co. at Mille Lacs (Canoe lake) on the Kaministiquia route (q.v.). It was situated to the right of two islands at Mountain Portage.
A fortified French post on the lower St. Lawrence 15 leagues below Tadoussac, and 2 leagues east of Mills Vaches bay. Identical with Portneuf. It was so called from large stones in the bay resembling at low tide a herd of cattle. It was one of the early French establishments below Tadoussac. After the cession of Canada, the North West Co. obtained this post and the Hudson's Bay Co. succeeded in 1821. It was closed about 1857. James McKenzie, visiting the King's Posts in 1808, says, the post was built on a high sand bank with the river before it flowing into the St. Lawrence. Though in the centre of the King's Domain it belonged to private individuals, having been given by the French to some petty noblesse. There was also a King's post at Portneuf. The post was noted for seal fisheries. In November 1775, it was related that quantities of seals were left by the receding tide and two or three thousand were killed in a few hours. From 500 to 1200 were killed every year in November and December. Shown on maps No. 67, 63, and on Bouchette's map of 1846.
Fortified post of Mingan Seigniory, on lower St. Lawrence. One of the oldest trading posts in Canada being in continuous operation for more than 260 years. The Seigniory extended from the Cormorants 90 leagues to the Vermilion river opposite the lower end of Anticosti. The seignueurs of Mingan claimed about 3000 square miles of the coast from the Cormorants to Blanc Sablon and to a depth of 10 miles. The Privy Council of England in 1892 defined the limits of the seigneury at 150 miles frontage and 6 miles depth from Cape Cormorants to the river Aquanish, a surface of 800,000 arpents, or about 1056 square miles.
The territory was closed to traders under the seigniory. In 1733 François Bissot asserted that Mingan seigniory had been established in 1661 and that it had been continuously operated either by his father François Bissot de la Rivière (the first seigneur) or by himself and his brother-in-law Jolliet from 1661 to 1733 when it was leased to Lafontaine and was called Terre Ferme de Mingan and Isles de Mingan. In 1736 the seigniory was leased to Sieur Volant for 21 years. In 1761 Lafontaine and Taché leased Mingan and its subsidiary posts to Isbester. In 1764 Cugnet and Taché leased Mingan, Anticosti, and Isles de Mingan to John Lymburner. In 1803 the seigniory and post were leased to McTavish, Frobisher & Co. (the North West Co.) who operated the post until in 1825. On expiration of the 1803 lease, the seigniory was leased to the Hudson's Bay Co. In 1866 on termination of the lease, Mingan post and a small area were again leased to the Hudson's Bay Co. who have operated the post to present date. It appears on the Company lists of 1856 and on other lists to date.
Mingan was the headquarters of the first seigneur. Anticosti and Mingan islands were granted in 1680 and 1697 to Sieur de Joliette. The post at Mingan is included in Bougainville's list 1757 and is described by Jas. McKenzie in 1808 as follows:
Mingan was the head post of the Seigniory. It was beautifully situated at mouth of Mingan river, with a good harbour. The buildings and chapel were as good as any on the coast. Salmon and trout are plentiful and seals are shot before the house. Mingan island is one mile in circumference, 3 leagues above the post. The old French post was located on Mingan island and was fortified. Remains of the stone work are still visible.
The North West Co's. post was located on the mainland at the mouth of Mingan river. In 1690 the post was destroyed by the English fleet. It was rebuilt and again destroyed by the English in 1711. Rebuilt by Bissot, it was again destroyed in 1759 by the English fleet.
A French fortified settlement of Micmac Indians on the north shore of Miramichi Bay, New Brunswick.
Hudson's Bay Co. post at outlet of lake Missinaibi, Ontario, built 1779. Burned in 1780 and immediately rebuilt. It is shown on Arrowsmith map 1824. Has been in constant operation to date. This post is now called New Brunswick House and Old Brunswick House on various maps, the name having been transferred when these posts were closed. (See Brunswick House and New Brunswick House). The locations of all three posts are shown on map No. 24. The North West Co. also built a post on Missinaibi lake in 1800. Missinaibi means "Pictures on water" referring to Indian pictographs on a cliff.
Old Brunswick House, built in 1744 on Missinaibi river was closed 1790.
New Brunswick House, built 1788 at outlet Brunswick lake closed about 1880.
Missinaibi fort 1779 to 1929.
Many of the Missions of the Récollets, Sulpicians, and Jesuits were fortified and included trading posts. Partial list with dates of founding follows:Récollets:
Hudson's Bay Co. post on mainland of North Channel, lake Huron, at the mouth of Mississagi river, about 45 miles west of La Cloche. It was established before 1850 and was probably the old North West Co. post at this place which had existed from about 1800. It is shown on the Arrowsmith map 1857 (No. 8) and on the Standard Sheet Sault Ste. Marie. It does not appear on the Company's lists after 1894. The name is variously spelled, Mitsisagua, Mississaugie.
A french fortified Indian settlement at the north end of lake Champlain on Missisquoi bay. Bougainville 1757 mentions a settlement of Abenakis Indians of 100 to 150 men.
An old French fortified trading post, a King's Post, on lake Mistassini, Quebec, built about 1673. It was located on the point called Eliquabit about 4 miles from head of Abatagusk bay, at the south end of lake Mistassini. It commanded the route to Fort Rupert. It was continuously operated by the different fur companies under the French regime. The North West Co. acquired this post by rental in 1802 and continued its maintenance until the union of 1821. It is called Maison Française on the Del'Isle map of 1703 (No. 18) and Maison des Dorvals on the Jesuit map 1730 (No. 110). It is shown on maps No. 10, 17, 18, 97, 96 and 112. On Mitchell's map 1755 (No. 111) there is a post called "Chebmonkoue" at mouth of Temiscamie river. Arrowsmith map 1821 shows a "Canadian House" on the site of the old French fort on Eliquabit point.
Another French fortified post built about 1674 was located at or near the mouth of the outlet from lake Albanel, shown on the Joliet map 1679 (No. 85) on the long point near the northeast end of lake Mistassini. It is shown on the Franquelin map of 1688 and Del'Isle's 1703 (No. 18). This post was called Chabanonkoue on some maps and Chebmonkoue on Mitchell map 1755 (No. 111).
The first of the Hudson's Bay Co. inland posts on the east mainland of Hudson Bay was built about 1787 on the East Main river at Birch Point about 300 miles above its mouth, where a portage trail leads to the Rupert river and to lake Mistassini. About 1800 this post was moved to the outlet of lake Mistassini and in 1835 to its present location on southwest bay about 10 miles north of the old French or North West Co. post. This establishment has been regularly maintained by the Company to present date. It appears to have been the only inland post of the Hudson's Bay Co. established in Labrador prior to amalgamation with the North West Co. except Nichicun. The location of Birch Point is shown on map No. 63. James McKenzie 1808 stated that the old post of the Hudson's Bay Co. on Birch Point was built of red spruce and grey pine and that it was known as Fort aux Anglais. It was outfitted from East Main Factory. Mistassini means "Large Stone".
French fort on west bank of Mobile bay, south of mouth of Mobile river and below the city. Built in 1702 of bricks with four bastions and moats. It was known also as fort Condé and is named fort Louis on Del'Isle's map 1718. Shown on maps No. 93, 98 and 96.
French fortified post named in list of King's posts in the Ordinance 1733 of Intendant Hocquart. Situated at mouth of Moisy river, just below Sept Isles, lower St. Lawrence. It was leased to De la Chesnaye before 1694 and was continuously operated until the cession of Canada. It is not mentioned in Bougainville's list 1757 nor by James McKenzie in 1808.
See Fort Moose.
French trading post on the lower St. Lawrence, built about 1733, fifteen miles above Mécatina. Concession of Montagamiou was granted by Hocquart in 1733 to Lafontaine de Belcour for nine years. In 1761 Governor Murray granted to Lafontaine permission to operate this post and outposts. In 1764 Jacques De la Fontaine sold the post to Alexander McKenzie and John Lymburner. It is mentioned on Bougainville's list 1757.
North West Co. fort on the south bank of the Assiniboine river, east of mouth of Gopher Creek and about 2 miles south of present Routledge on the C.P.Rd. It was built before 1794 and about 50 miles above McDonnell's House (Fort Souris) at the mouth of the Souris river. McDonnell was there in 1794 and Harmon in 1804-5 who wrote that "the fort is well built and beautifully situated on the high bank of the Red river (Assiniboine), overlooking the country—a perfect plain and great buffalo country".
It was the nearest point to the North West Co. post on the Souris river. The fort was enclosed by a stockade 200 x 250 feet and enclosed a number of houses.
A Hudson's Bay Co. post was built by McLeod for the Company in 1812 in immediate vicinity. This post was not operated later than 1865. It was known also as Turtle Mountain House. Map No. 8.
A North West Co. fort on north side of Saskatchewan river, 9 miles below mouth of Battle river, in a low bottom of the valley. It was built by Cole, a Canadian trader, in 1779-80. Cole was killed by the Indians in 1780. Alex. Henry Jr. passed the site of this fort in 1808 and reported that it was then "a heap of ruins".
The Hudson's Bay Co. constructed an adjoining fortified post. Known also as Eagle Hill fort. One of the first posts on Upper Saskatchewan river.
See Somerset House.
Hudson's Bay Co. fort at mouth of Moose river, built by Radison & Groseliers in 1671, on or near the site of present Moose Factory, on an island 6 or 7 miles above the open bay or mouth of river. The original fort was surrounded by a square of palisades 100 feet long on each side and 18 feet high with four bastions. It was known as the Hayes Island post. It was the residence of the first Governor of the Company in America, Charles Bayley. On June 11, 1686, it was captured by the French and called by them variously Fort St. Louis, Bourbon, Monsippi, and Monsoni. It was recaptured by the English in 1693 and again retaken by the French 1693 and called Fort St. Louis. In 1696 two English men-of-war retook Fort Moose and other posts in James Bay. About this time the Company was again dispossessed and they demolished the original fort. The site remained unoccupied till 1730. In 1728 Bevan "discovered the island and place where the fort stood formerly". In 1730 the Company rebuilt Fort Moose, the foundations being laid in September 1730, on the same island about ½ a mile higher up the river Moose. The name then given "Moose Factory" has been used ever since. The Company list of 1749 names Moose fort and it is named Mouse Fort on Rocque's map 1763 (No. 96). The Factory has been in continuous operation since 1730.
See lac d'Orignal.
See Assiniboine House.
Hudson's Bay Co. fort on Stikine river, B. C., on left bank near mouth of Shakes Creek or First South Fork, near present town at Telegraph Creek, sometimes called Glenora House. Established before 1800. Maps 3, 6 and 84.
Old French fortified trading post on lower St. Lawrence at mouth of Musquarro (Muskwaro) river. The most eastern post in Mingan Seigniory, 20 leagues from Nepioshibou. It was established about 1710. Was in the territory leased to the Labrador Company of Quebec in 1780. Acquired by North West Co. 1803 by lease and by Hudson's Bay Co. 1821. James McKenzie in 1808 says, "The position of the post was well concealed. In 1775 was not discovered by the American pirates. The fort included a chapel and a few houses and was a noted post for quantities of beaver and martens". Under the Hudson's Bay Co. the name was changed to Romaine (which see). It was reported on the Company lists of 1831-1857. Apparently closed for a time in 1859. In operation 1925. Map 105 & 8.
Hudson's Bay Co. post on Nachvak bay about 100 miles south of Port Burwell, Ungava, built in 1868 and closed 1905.
See Fort St. James.
Hudson's Bay Co. fort on east coast of Vancouver Island, built 1850 to protect the coal interests of local mines. The bastion of the original fort is still preserved.
Hudson's Bay Co. post on the north bay of lake Petitisikapau, Labrador, about 120 miles above Grand Falls. It was established in 1838 and closed 1880. It is shown on the Company lists of 1857 and 1869, and on maps No. 8 and 61. Erected for trade with the Nascopi Indians. When Fort Chimo was re-opened in 1866 the Indians traded there and also to the south coast with Mingan and Sept Isles and trade deserted this post.
French fort on north bank of Nashwaak river at its junction with the St. John river, opposite present Fredericton, N.B. Built by Governor Villebon 1692 after abandonment of Fort Jemseg. It was 200 feet square, having a bastion at each corner with mounted guns, and surrounded by palisades and a ditch or moat. It was abandoned in 1698.
French fortified post on lake Naskapis (Ashuanipi) Quebec, at the outlet. Built before 1731 and probably about 1700. Joliet and Bissot traded on lake Naskapis in 1696 which they had discovered in 1695. This was one of the posts in the Traite de Tadoussac 1749 and was a King's post. It is shown as "Maison Française" on Palairet's map 1755 (No. 119) also on No. 24.
Old French trading post on lower St. Lawrence at mouth of Natashquan river, on the pointe du Vieux Forte. It was built before 1710. In 1734 the Bissots (seigneurs of Mingan) controlled this post. It was probably operated by the North West Co. under lease 1788. Mackenzie (1808) mentions the post as being "half way between Nepioshibou and Masquaro." The river was noted for quantities of salmon caught in nets. The Hudson's Bay Co. acquired this post from the North West Co. They were in control in 1831 and included this post in their list of 1856. It was finally abandoned by the Company about 1914. On Bougainville's list of 1757 it is called Nontagnaniou and is named on Del'Isle's Map of 1703 (No. 18) as Natagamiou. Map No. 24.
In 1755 Washington was sent by Governor Dinwiddie of Virginia to garrison the British fort being built at the forks of the Ohio river. He found that Contrecoeur had captured the fort and renamed it from Fort Pitt to Fort Duquesne 1754. Washington then intrenched at Great Meadows about 50 miles from Fort Duquesne and called the place Fort Necessity. Attacked by the French under de Villiers, Washington capitulated. The French then erected Fort de la Necessité on the spot. It was probably destroyed by the French in 1759 and the garrison retired to Detroit. Shown on maps No. 16 and 97.
Called also Fort York, now York Factory, and under the French Fort Bourbon (Map 18). Hudson's Bay Co. fort about 5 or 6 miles from Beacon Point at the outlet of Hayes river, on the north bank, Manitoba.
1612-13. Sir Thomas Button wintered at Fort Nelson.
1670 Hudson's Bay Co. erected a small establishment at Hart's Creek, mouth of Nelson river. This fort soon disappeared.
1673 The H. B. Co. traded at Button's wintering place.
1682 Governor Bridger of H. B. Co. erected a fort at Woodchuck Creek up the Nelson river, the fourth of the Company forts on Hudson bay. This fort was seized by Radisson (at that time in the interests of the French) in the spring of 1683. The fort was destroyed and Governor Bridger carried prisoner to Fort Bourbon.
1682 Radisson after destruction of the H. B. Co. fort, built a fort about 15 miles up Hayes river, above the present York Factory and on the right bank of the river, which he called Fort Bourbon. This fort Bourbon was on the site of the later York Factory and above the present York Factory and on the opposite side of the river. Radisson was then acting in the interests of the Compagnie du Nord. Nelson river was then called Bourbon river by the French and the Hayes river Ste. Thérèse.
1684 Radisson (now in the employ of the H.B. Co.) returned and seized Fort Bourbon for the H. B. Co. And it was renamed Fort Nelson, and also called Fort York, and York Factory.
1686 de Troyes captured all the H.B. Co. forts on Hudson and James bays except Fort Nelson, the name of which was now changed to York Fort.
1690 Governor Phipps destroyed the fort to save it from the French.
1691 York fort was rebuilt by the H. B. Co. larger and stronger. It was located about 4 miles from the mouth of Nelson river on the south side of the triangular tongue of land bounded by the two river channels converging. It was a stockaded fort with bastions at the four corners. The river front was protected by earthworks and cannon. The fort had 32 cannon, & 14 swivel guns outside and 53 swivel guns inside. This fort stood for nearly 100 years until finally burned by French in 1782.
1694 Attacked by Iberville and surrendered to the French October 14, 1694. It was renamed Fort Bourbon and the Hayes river called Ste. Thérèse, the fort having been captured on Ste. Thérèse day October 14. The Nelson river was renamed Bourbon river. See maps No. 117 and 18.
1696 Surrendered to the English 31 August 1696.
1697 Attacked by Iberville and surrendered to the French September 1697 and held by them until 1714 when it was handed back to H.B. Co. by terms of the Treaty of Utrecht. See map No. 93.
1782 Captured by French and finally destroyed.
1783 Rebuilt by the H. B. Co.
1788-1795 Moved half a mile upstream to avoid floods to its present location, the work of removing and rebuilding occupying 5 years. Remains of the old fort destroyed in 1782 are still visible. It had been built in the midst of swampy land, covered with low stunted spruce almost impenetrable. The land never thaws more than from 12 to 18 inches in the hottest weather. The work was carried on under Joseph Colen and several of the present buildings were constructed by him 1789. York Factory consists of several buildings arranged around a quadrangle; some being large warehouses, others are residences. The present location is about half a mile above the old fort. York Factory is the great warehouse depot of the Hudson's Bay Co. where a supply of goods etc. is kept on hand to meet the demand of trade for two years. For over two centuries York Factory has been the central supply house for all the H. B. Co. posts of the western country, a great centre of distribution until the building of the Canadian Pacific Railway in 1885. See maps No. 18, 117, 94, 140 & 96.
Hudson's Bay Co. post on Footprint Lake, 66 miles northwest of Wabowden, mile 136, Hudson Bay Railway. Known also as Nelson River House. Established between 1740 and 1760. The location has been changed several times during the past century and a half. It was erected on the present site in 1878. It is one of the earliest posts. Has one outpost on South Indian lake 120 miles north of Nelson House. Footprint lake drains into Burntwood river and thence to Nelson river. Shown on maps No. 3, 8, 12, 16, 68, 101 and 100. Thompson was at this post in 1804.
Hudson's Bay Co. fort on the Nelson river, a tributary of the Liard river, on the right bank, 100 miles above the mouth. Built about 1800. In 1825, the occupants of the fort, including Alexander Henry Jr. and 4 men and some women and children, were massacred by Indians and the post was deserted for many years. It was rebuilt in 1865. It appears on the 1869 and 1872 lists, but not later. Shown on maps No. 90 & 35.
Old French fortified post on Rupert river, lake Nemiscow enlargement of Rupert river, about 85 miles above its mouth. Built in 1695 and rated as a King's Post. It was a half-way station between Mistassini and Rupert House. In 1672 Père Albanel discovered the lake. In 1684 Jolliet was ordered by De la Barré to build a fort on "Nemisko" river. The Nemiscau post was granted to the Compagnie du Nord in 1695 who continued to operate the post until the cession of Canada. Traders from Montreal and Quebec were established in the old fort in 1774. In 1794 the Hudson's Bay Co. erected their fort Nemiscau. It is called Nepiscaw House on Arrowsmith map 1848 & 1832 (No. 101). It was not included in the 1869 list, but after being closed for some time it was re-opened before 1923.
Hudson's Bay Co. fort on East Main river about 300 miles above its mouth and about 65 miles distant from lake Mistassini. It was the first of the Company's posts erected in the interior of Labrador, built about 1787. This was 85 years after the French had built the King's post on lake Mistassini. A portage route led from this post to Rupert river. About 1800 this post was closed and one opened at the outlet of lake Mistassini. James Mackenzie reported Neoskweskau as in operation in 1808. It is included in the Company list of 1821 under name Neisquiscar. It was closed in 1823 and omitted from list of 1869 but is shown on Arrowsmith map 1832 (No. 101) in operation but omitted from 1857 map. Was reported in operation 1925. Shown map No. 63. This post was also known as Birch Point and Fort Aux Anglais. See Fort Mistassini.
Old French trading post on lower St. Lawrence described by Mackenzie 1808 as being "30 leagues from Mingan on the Man river". This was the Nabesipi or Piashti river near Pashashibu bay, about 62°W. Longitude. The post was in the Mingan seigniory. It has no harbour but was on the river. An inferior post for furs but noted for quantities of salmon. Established before 1710. Leased by the North West Co. 1808 & acquired by the Hudson's Bay Co. about 1825, who operated it until about 1860. Shown Bouchette's map 1846. Map. No. 24.
See Fort Severn.
Hudson's Bay Co. post built in 1788 on the west bank of Brunswick lake, Ontario, near the outlet. At the date of union both the North West Co. and the Hudson's Bay Co. operated posts on Brunswick lake. It was named in the schedule annexed to deed of surrender Rupert's land 1869. It appears on the 1894 list and was closed soon after. See Brunswick House and Fort Missinaibi. Brunswick lake was originally called Micabanish lake. Shown on maps No. 24, 137, 101.
See Fort St. James.
French fort built 1717 near outlet of Mississippi river. Two forts on opposite banks of river are shown on the Ross map 1765 [No. 143], St. Leon and Ste. Marie.
Hudson's Bay Co. post on Kenogami river, Ont., about 30 miles north (downstream) from Mamattawa, at mouth of Wakashi river, and about 30 miles south of the Albany river. Fort Mamattawa was removed to this site in 1860 and the name changed to New Post. Mamattawa was moved back again to its old site in 1880 and New Post was then discontinued. Shown on maps No. 52 and 79.
See fort Walla Walla.
French fort at the mouth of Niagara river on the right bank. The first fort was built of logs and a palisade by La Motte for La Salle in 1678 for control of the fur trade. This fort was rebuilt by Denonville in 1686 and abandoned in 1688. It was again rebuilt under Vaudreuil in 1721 and a larger fort erected in 1755-56 of stone. In September 1759 this fort surrendered to Sir Wm. Johnson. In Bougainville's list 1757 Fort Niagara is described as "the key of the upper country and a King's Post, - an earth fort which ought to be faced with stone. The present fort was constructed in 1755-56 by French troops under direction of M. Pouchot, Captain of the regiment of Béarn". Bougainville speaks of another fort "a little fort Niagara for entrepôt" which was probably "The Little Portage fort", a King's post, on the left bank opposite Fort Niagara. It was always considered a strong fort. The original name appears in the Jesuit Relations as Onguiachra and the place was at first a village of the Neutral Indians. A long trail extended from Niagara to Detroit a part of which was afterwards used for the Talbot road. It is called Fort Denonville on Del'Isle's map 1705 No. 18, Bowen's 1763 No. 98, and on Palairet's 1755 No. 119. Shown also on map No. 10 & 15.
A French fortified post established before 1725 at the north end of lake Nichicun near the outlet, Labrador. The Hudson's Bay Co. succeeded to this fort, which they rebuilt, before 1800. It was operated by the Company until after 1894 and probably closed about 1910. The Arrowsmith map of 1821 shows the post on an island. In 1822 Governor Simpson stated that the post was closed. In 1834 it was reestablished. It is shown on maps No. 8, and 101, and was included in the Company lists of 1857, 1869, and 1872. The name occurs also as Nitchequon.
Old French post built before 1700 on Nikabau lake, head of Ashuapmouchouan river, Quebec. Lake is shown on map No. 63. Del'Isle's map of 1700 shows the post; also on Del'Isle's map 1703, No. 18. It was listed by Begon in 1720 as one of the King's Posts in Traite du Tadoussac. In 1731 it was reestablished as a winter post and in 1733 it was given as one of the King's Posts and Jean Baptiste Dorval des Groseliers was in charge of the post. On Danville's map of 1755 (No. 97) it is shown on the east shore of lake "Chamonchouan" at the outlet of river Nekoubau as "Maison Française". The name is variously written, Nikabau, Necouba, Nekouban, Nekoubau.
Also spelled, Nipawi, Nepoin, Nippeween, Nepowewin, and Upper Neepawa. See Fort à la Corne.
Hudson's Bay Co. post on northwest shore of lake Nipigon. The first of this Company's forts on lake Nipigon was built at the north end of the lake about 1775 or 1785 and was named fort Nipigon. It is shown on the Arrowsmith maps of 1832 (No. 101), 1850 (No. 100), and 1857 (No. 8). Their second fort was constructed on Wabinosh bay in the northwest angle of the lake and was called Wabinosh House. This post was probably built about 1821 or soon after the union and superseded the first fort Nipigon and the North West Company's Fort Duncan which stood nearby. About 1850 Wabinosh House was removed 10 miles to the south and re-established as Nipigon House on its present site. The original Wabinosh House is shown on the Bartholomew map accompanying Burpee's Search for the Western Sea. A canoe route leads from this bay to Osnaburgh House on lake St. Joseph and thence by the Albany river to York Factory, whence the Hudson's Bay Co. furs were shipped to England, and not via Montreal. Nipigon House is shown on Richardson's map of 1851, and on map of Hind's Expedition 1858 and Arrowsmith 1857 (No. 8).
Other posts established by the Hudson's Bay Co. on lake Nipigon were, (1) Poplar Lodge about 1825 on the east shore of the lake at the mouth of the Namewinikan river, shown on the Bartholomew map referred to above also on map [No. 73] accompanying the first report of the geological survey of lake Nipigon made in 1869; (2nd) a small post called Red Rock House at the mouth of the Nipigon river on the right side, head of Nipigon harbour. Grant in Ocean to Ocean, 1872, speaks of the old Hudson's Bay Co. station at the mouth of Nipigon river. Red Rock House was established soon after the union of 1821 on the site of, or near by, the old French Fort Nipigon.
The North West Co. about 1785 established themselves at the old French Fort Nipigon at the mouth of the Nipigon river and endeavoured to secure a monopoly of the fur trade in the interior north of lake Superior. Outposts on the shores of lake Nipigon were built, (1) one on the southwest shore of the lake, name unknown, shown on map [No. 5] of 1817 in Davidson's History of the North West Co., and (2) Fort Duncan, built by Duncan Cameron about 1795 at the north end of lake Nipigon on Windigo or Wabinosh bay. Cameron was clerk at Nipigon in 1797 and was in charge of the Nipigon district 1799.
|Camanistigoyan||mouth Nipigon river||French||1678|
|La Maune||" Ombabika "||"||1684|
|Outoulabis||n.end of lake||"||1685|
|Nipigon||mouth Nipigon "||N. W. Co.||1785|
|Nipigon||north end of lake||H. B. Co.||1775|
|Duncan||" " "||N. W. Co.||1795|
|Unknown||S.W.shore of lake||"||c. 1817|
|Nipigon House||N.W. " "||H. B. Co.||c. 1820|
|Wabinosh House||" " "||"||c. 1821|
|Red Rock House||mouth Nipigon river||"||c. 1820|
|Poplar Lodge||East shore of lake||"||c. 1825|
Lake Nipigon during the French regime was called Alemipigon, and Nemipigon, afterwards shortened to Nipigon, meaning "deep, clear, water". It was also called later St. Anne or Red lake and on Hennepin's maps of 1682 and 1697, lake St. Joseph, where a fort is shown at the north end called "Outonlibis" or fort to stop the Assinipoels. Lake Nipigon was first surveyed in 1869 by Robert Bell.
Hudson's Bay Co. post on East Bay, at the east end of lake Nipissing, Ontario, at the end of the portage from Trout lake via Vase river on the route from Mattawa to Georgian Bay. A short portage extended from the southwest bay of Trout lake to La Vase river and hence to East Bay. This was the historic route of the fur traders from the Ottawa river to lake Superior. There had been a small post here under the French regime and an Indian village. On Danville's map of 1755 (No. 97) lake Nipissing is called "Nipisirinis, or lac des Sorciers". A North West Co. post was located at mouth of Vase river, called Fort La Ronde. Before 1850 the Hudson's Bay Co. post was moved to one of the islands in lake Nipissing. After the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway, the post was moved to North Bay about 5 miles to the north. Map No. 123 and 23.
Hudson's Bay Co. fort at south and of Puget Sound, shown on maps No. 8 and 100 This post was probably closed before 1865 as the Company made no claim from the United States for it at that time. See Oregon Territory.
Hudson's Bay Co. post on right bank Mackenzie river at mouth of Great Bear river. Map No. 25. Built in 1810. Moved about 30 miles upstream in 1844 to a site a few miles below Gravel river (Rivière du Gravois), called Old Fort Point, near the site of the old North West Co. Fort Castor. In 1851 it was moved back to its present site. Maps No. 8, 100, 101.
Hudson's Bay Co. post at upper end of lake Melville, at the outlet of Grand lake, opposite mouth of Hamilton river, Labrador. Established 1840 and in operation to date.
1743. The first trading post was erected by the French at the outlet of Grand lake, called "Rivière Nord-Ouest post". Fornell's men wintered there.
1749. Bays des Esquimaux concession was granted to the widow Fornell.
1777. The first Englishman wintered and traded in the Bay, at the remains of the old French post.
1785. Marcoux (a French Canadian) operated an establishment at North West River and French trading posts were in continuous operation until 1837.
1836. Hudson's Bay Co. erected Fort Smith on the site. This name was soon changed to North West River House (1840). McLean arrived at Fort Smith 16 February 1838 from Fort Chimo on his inland journey from north to south Labrador.
Hudson's Bay Co. fort at present located at the north end of Fort Island, mouth of the Gunisao river, on Little Playgreen lake, Manitoba.
The original fort was located at the south end of Mossy Point at the entrance to Playgreen lake (Buckescoggan lake), north end of lake Winnipeg. Shown maps No. 37 and 125. It was built about 1800. Franklin 1819 states that the origin of the name was due to a settlement of Norwegians who were driven from Selkirk's Colony in 1815. This fort was burnt in 1825.
Before 1819 another post had been built 25 miles distant at the mouth of Jack river (now called Gunisao river) known as Jack River House and to this site the first Norway House was moved after the fire of 1825. For some time the new fort was called Jack River House or Norway House and is shown on maps No. 8 and 101, and on Hind's map 1858. Ermatinger noticed the new fort in 1826. Sir George Back stated that the Nelson river had encroached on the original location 300 yards since 1819.
The present Norway House was built by John McLeod in 1826 to 1828. See maps 125 and 37, and 141. (See also Notes and Documents, Rupert's Land 1825 & Minutes of Council 1825.) It was surrounded by a picket palisade 15 feet high enclosing a square 150 yards on each side, having two gates. Inside was the chief Factor's residence 50 feet long for the general council &c., and other buildings for the Governor, clerks, offices, men &c. Boat building was the main occupation.
Remains of the first fort on Mossy Point are still visible. Norway House was an important divisional point when goods were transported from York Factory to the interior. The Northern Council of the Hudson's Bay Co. annually met there and Sir George Simpson, whose residence was at Norway House, presided at the meetings. The Cree syllabic characters were invented by Rev. J. Evans in 1801, and the transfer of Rupert's Land to the Crown was arranged there in 1869.
Hudson's Bay Co. fort at the west end of lake Athabaska. Built by Peter Fidler for the Company in 1802. This was the first Hudson's Bay Co. fort on the lake. In 1808 the Company abandoned the whole Athabaska district to the North West Co. and Fort Nottingham was deserted. In 1815 the Hudson's Bay Co. returned and built Fort Wedderburne on Coal Island some distance from the North West Co. who had Fort Chipewyan on the opposite side. In 1821 after coalition of the two Companies, the Hudson's Bay Co. moved into Fort Chipewyan which they enlarged. Maps No. 8, 100 and 101. See Fort Wedderburn.
See Capot River Fort.
Small Hudson's Bay Co. post on southeast shore of lake Manitoba. It was included in the list of 1869 attached to Deed of Surrender and again on the 1872 list. It was of short duration. Shown map No. 13 and 21.
Hudson's Bay Co. post established before 1830 on lake Obijuan (Obiduan) headwaters of the St. Maurice river Quebec. An outpost of Kikendatch. In present use.
Hudson's Bay Co. fort on right side of Columbia river at the mouth of Okanagan river. Built 1811. It was a stockaded fort. The Company claimed indemnity for the loss of this fort from the United States. See Oregon Territory. Shown maps No. 8, 12, 100, 101. The North West Co. was located nearby.
Name variously applied to several forts:
French post built before 1685 at the confluence of the Abitibi and Frederick House rivers, Ontario. Shown on map No. 24. This was probably the post shown on Jaillot's map 1685 (No. 85) and 1696 (No. 117) though this map is imperfectly drawn.
Hudson's Bay Co. post on left bank of Athabaska river at confluence of Red river (now called McKay river since 1912) and the Athabaska. This fort is now called Fort McKay. It was probably constructed about 1870 and appears on the list of 1872 for first time. It probably superseded the older post Pierre-au-Calumet situated about 10 miles farther north. Shown on map No. 11 and Red River on map No. 34. See Pierre-au-Calumet.
Hudson's Bay Co. fort on north side of North Saskatchewan river, about 114°16'W., and about 2½ miles east of the confluence of Wabamun Creek (White Lake Creek). It was one of the early forts in this region being established in 1810 when both forts Augustus and Edmonton were abandoned and reestablished as White Mud Fort at White Mud Creek, where they remained until about 1818. This fort was maintained until at least 1875. Maps No. 36, 37 and 11. See Fort Augustus.
See Fort Romaine.
British fort at mouth of Oswego river, New York state, on right bank. Three forts were constructed in close proximity, Ontario, Oswego on left bank, and George half a mile further on. These forts were captured by the French in 1756. Shown on maps No. 10 and 96.
Forts of the Hudson's Bay Co. in the Columbia valley were surrendered to the United States on settlement of the Oregon question 1846. Posts and forts of the North West Co. on American territory, i.e. Minnesota &c, were surrendered 1796. Forts on the Grand Portage, lake Superior, were surrendered 1796-1801. The following forts of the Hudson's Bay Co. were situated south of the 49th parallel. The Company claimed indemnity payment from the United States for these forts. Some of them had been built by the Hudson's Bay Co. and some by the North West Co. British and American Joint Commission-Memorial of Hudson's Bay Co. April, 1865. H. B. Co. against U.S. Page 10. Short notes are given on each fort in the memorial.
Forts Vancouver, Champoeg, Cowlitz at river mouth, George (Astoria), Cape Disappointment, Chinook or Pillar Rock, Umpqua, Nez-Percés (Walla-Walla), Hall, Boisé, Okanagan, Colville, Kootanais, Flat-Heads.
The following forts were on American Territory, but no claim for indemnity for their loss was made by the Hudson's Bay Co.:
French fort on south bank of Missouri river a few miles above the mouth of Grand river (called Great river). This fort is marked "Abandoned" on Danville map of 1755 (No. 97). It is shown also on maps No. 96, 119 and 111.
Hudson's Bay Co. post at east end of lake St. Joseph, Ontario. It was built in 1786 to offset the North West Co. at lake Nipigon and to prevent the Indians from trading with that Company. It was sometimes called Albany House. Rebuilt in 1794. From 1810 to 1815 it was closed "since the affair at Eagle lake". It was reopened in 1815 and has been in operation from that date to present time. Maps No. 100 & 101.
British fort at mouth Oswego river, New York, on left bank. Built in 1726, under protest from the French, to open a route for the Indians to fort Albany on the Hudson river, Fort Niagara being under the French and closing that route. Fort Oswego was favoured by the Iroquois. Captured by Montcalm in July 1756 together with adjoining forts and mostly destroyed. After the conquest of Canada, Fort Oswego was rebuilt by the British. The name given by the French to this fort was De Chougnan and the Oswego river was called Onontaquis (Onondaga). Adjoining forts were Ontario, Oswego, and George. Maps No. 10 & 15.
French fort on the north side (right bank) of the upper Wabash river, about 50 miles above Vincennes. It was the first post on the Wabash and was palisaded. Was included in Bougainville's list 1757. Surrendered to the British 1761 and was captured by Pontiac 1 June 1763. Was one of the forts commanding route from lake Erie by the Maumee and Wabash rivers to the Mississippi. Shown on map No. 10, 97. The Wabash was called by the French the St. Jerome river.
Old French fort at north end of lake Nipigon. Hennepin's maps of 1682 and 1697 show this fort marked "Outoulibis or fort to stop the Assinipoels" and such a fort is also shown on the map "La Cours du Fleuve Mississippi 1737". This fort and La Tourette (or La Maune) were the original French forts on lake Nipigon and probably Outoulibis was the first Hudson's Bay Co. fort on the lake having been taken over by the Company after the cession of Canada and the name changed to fort Nipigon.
Hudson's Bay Co. post at the northeast end of Oxford lake on the Hayes river route from Norway House and lake Winnipeg to York Factory. It was the oldest post in Keewatin District. The first fort was established by Chief Factor William Sinclair in 1798 and the second by John McLeod in 1816. This post has been in regular operation from 1798 to date. It was an important post when York Factory was the main shipping port and York boats were used. See maps 68, 140, 100, 101 & 126.
Old French trading post at mouth of river De l'Isle aux Rosiers on Baie aux Outardes near Bersimis (Betsiamites) on lower St. Lawrence,(the Papinachois Réserve des Sauvages). Location is shown on map 67. It was built before 1694, a King's Post in the Domaine du Roy. In 1694 it was under lease. In 1701 was leased to the Cie. du Nord. It remained in operation until the cession of Canada. Three posts were near together, Isle-Jerémie 1650, Papinachois a. 1694, and Bersimis a. 1703.
See Pineimuta Lake.
Name is abbreviated form of the old French fort Pasquia nearby (see Pascoyac).
Hudson's Bay Co. post established at The Pas between 1775 and 1790. Has been operated by the Co. from date of building to present time. A. Henry Sr. on the first trader's expedition to West after cession of Canada passed through in 1775 and makes no mention of the fort.
French fort at mouth of Pasquia river (called also Montagne du Pas river). The name is written also as Paskoya, Pasquia, Paskoia. Pascoyac was the Indian name for the Saskatchewan river. It was built by Vérendrye in 1749 (others give 1744) and was located very near the present town The Pas. Vérendrye Sr. was succeeded by de Noyelle who through one of the Vérendrye's sons built Fort Bourbon on lake Winnipegosis and Fort Pascoyac. It was included in Bougainville's list 1757 who says "fort Paskoia is on the river of that name, 180 leagues from Dauphin. From this fort one comes in 10 days to the river Nelson". In 1808 Alex. Henry Jr. found the remains of an old fort which he estimated to be 50 years old at the locality of Fort Pascoyac. In 1755 Hendry stated that many furs were here obtained from Indians going to Hudson Bay. The first post built by the North West Co. on Cumberland lake was near the site of Pascoyac. Shown on map 10.
North West Co. post on south side of Pembina river near its mouth. Built by Chaboillez in 1797 and abandoned 1800.
See Fort of the Forks.
See Fort McPherson.
Hudson's Bay Co. post at north end of Pelican lake near Pelican Narrows between Pelican lake and Mirond lake, enlargements of the Sturgeon-Weir river, on route between Reindeer lake and Cumberland House, about half way, and about 30 miles from Frog Portage. (Churchill river, Saskatchewan). This post was established about 1798 and is still maintained by the Company. It is shown on several old maps as a H. B. Co. post without name, and is probably the same post as that shown on Mirond lake on some maps. Map No. 147.
See Carlton House.
Hudson's Bay Co. post near source of the Pelly river, Yukon Territory. Built in 1842 by Campbell and named from the bank where he first saw the Pelly river in 1840. It was accidentally burned in 1849 and the site abandoned in 1850. It is shown on map No. 122, the upper Yukon river 1887.
First fort of the North West Co. at Pembina was built by Charles Chaboillez 1797-1798 for the N.W. Co. on the west side of the Red river and the south side of the Pembina river. It was known as Chaboillez House. Henry Jr. in 1800 saw the remains and in 1801 slept one night there while the new fort was being built. An earlier trading post had been built by Peter Grant in 1793 (See Grant's House No. 204).
North West Co. fort at mouth of Pembina river on the north side opposite to remains of Chaboillez' House on the south side (No. 421). It was built by Alex. Henry Jr. 1801 who "selected the north side of Pandian river at the point of land between that and the Red river, about 100 paces from each river." This fort was seized by John McLeod for the Hudson's Bay Co. in December 1815. Shown on map No. 7.
The first Hudson's Bay Co. fort was built on the east side of Red river in 1793 by McKay. In 1801 the Company rebuilt this fort. It was on the site of the present St. Vincent, Minnesota. In 1812 the Company built Fort Daer (q.v.) on the north side of Pembina river, site of present town of Pembina. In 1821 the Hudson's Bay Co. took over the N.W. Co. fort Pembina which stood close by. After delineation of the International boundary the Hudson's Bay Co. moved a short distance north to British territory. In 1871 Fenian raiders from the United States seized this fort.
The X.Y. Co. also built in 1801 by Crébassa.
See fort Weenisk.
French fort built in 1695 on Mississippi river west bank above lake Pepin and below the junction of St. Croix and Mississippi rivers, about 25 to 30 miles below the present St.Pau1. It was rebuilt about 1750.
See Fort Bonsecours.
Early French trading post on the lower St. Lawrence, at mouth of Petit Mécatina river, opposite north end of Petit Mécatina island, about 24 miles southwest of Gros Mécatina. Built in 1740. It was granted in 1740 to Henry A. de St. Vincent. In 1764 it was leased to Alex. Mackenzie and Lymburner for 6 years. In 1804 they sold to Wm. Grant. Maps 24 and 67.
Stockaded French fort on bank of Ottawa river, about 35 miles above the Longue Sault at Grenville, at or near mouth of Petite Nation river. Alex. Henry Sr. in 1761 passed this fort and found it deserted.
North West Co. fort at mouth of Pic river, north side of Heron Bay, lake Superior. Built before 1790. This post was at the beginning of the canoe route to Long lake and thence north. After the coalition of 1821 it was operated by the Hudson's Bay Co. until about 1865. It appears on their list of 1856 but not on later lists. It was sometimes called Peck fort or The Pic. The X. Y. Co. also operated a post at this locality before 1804. Shown on maps No. 6, 8, 86.
Old French post at mouth of Mistassini river, on shore of lake St. John, Quebec, about 8 miles from Pointe Bleue. Probably built about 1700. Shown Mitchell map 1755 No. 142, and on Bouchette's map Canada &c 1846 with a note "Site of ancient Trading Post". Also map No. 24.
Old Hudson's Bay Co. post on right bank of the Athabaska river, opposite the mouth of Calumet creek. This fort was probably one of the earliest posts in that region after Pond's Old Establishment and coëval with the Fort of the Forks. In later years it was superseded by Old Red River House which, in turn, became Fort Mackay. In 1817 Pierre-au-Calumet was seized and plundered by the North West Co. It was deserted before 1848. Mackay river was formerly called Red River, and the Athabaska was known as the Elk or La Biche river. Shown on maps of 1851, on Hind's map 1858, on No. 12, 3, 41, 100-101.
Hudson's Bay Co. post at northwest corner of Pigeon lake, about 25 miles south of the North Saskatchewan river on meridian 114°W. It was included in the lists of 1869 and 1872. Shown on maps No. 34, 37 and 35.
Hudson's Bay Co. post on Pike lake about 15 miles west of lake Nikabau, Quebec, (49°10'N & 74°10'W.) near the source of Opawika river. It was probably established about 1825 and was included on the lists of 1836, 1857, 1869, and 1872. Closed about 1890. Shown on maps No. 62, 24, 8.
See fort Crevècoeur.
North West Co. fort on north bank of Assiniboine river west of Pine creek, 18 miles below junction of Souris and Assiniboine rivers, in the N. E. quarter of Section 36, Tp. 8, R. 14, west of principal meridian, about 8 miles south of Carberry Junction on the C. N. R'y. It was built in 1784-1785. Abandoned by the North West Co. 1794 when the Hudson's Bay Co. built Fort Souris 20 miles by land higher up the river in 1793. It was the lowest post of the N. W. Co. on Assiniboine river and was the chief trading post of the Mandan Indians. It was reopened by the Hudson's Bay Co. about 1821 after the coalition. Henry and Harmon visited the remains of this fort in 1805. It was sometimes called fort Des Epinettes, des Pins, des Trembles. Shown on maps No. 3, 5, 7, 9, 101.)
North West Co. post on Pineimuta lake, between St. Martin's lake and lake Manitoba. The name is Indian for Partridge Crop and the North West Co. post was known by the French name "Fale Perdrix" as on their list of posts in 1820. It was located about 15 miles northeast of the Hudson's Bay Co. post Fairford [House (2)] (q.v.). It was discontinued after the coalition 1821 and does not appear on the H. B. Co. lists. See Sectional Sheet No. 172.
French fort built by Charles, Sieur de la Tourette, brother of Dulhut, in 1673, at outlet of lake Piscoutagami (modern Nighthawk) lake on the Frederick House branch of the Abitibi river, about 45 miles southwest of lake Abitibi. Shown on La Hontan map of 1703 (No. 20) at the outlet of a lake given as source of Albany river, with legend "Little St. Germain which hinders ye Assinipoels to come down to Port Nelson" (English reprint of 1735). On Jaillot's map of 1685 (No. 85) and 1696 (No. 117) the fort is shown with legend "Poste du Sieur de St. Germain pour couper presque toutes les voies des Sauvages du Nord et les empêcher de descendre à la Baye de Hudson". Bellin says "Albany river comes from a lake of the same name (we call the river Ste. Anne, the Indian was Quitchide Chouen) and on the shore of the lake we have a fort St. Germain". La Hontan 1703 gives Piscoutagami lake on portage to Michipicoten river. Piscoutagami and St. Germain were the same fort. In the "Deuxième Mémoire de la Compagnie Française" by French Commissioners 1687 it was stated that Piscoutagami was built in 1673. White discusses the question of the site of St. Germain in vol. 8 Canada and Its Provinces. The fort was rebuilt by the French in 1684 and probably destroyed by them at the cession of Canada. In 1785 the Hudson's Bay Co. removed Frederick House from its first site to or near the site of Piscoutagami. See Frederick House, Maps 20, 24, 10, 117, 77.
Hudson's Bay Co. post on south [sic] bank of North Saskatchewan river about 109°50'W. It was a square palisaded and bastioned fort, situated 100 yards from the river. Built in 1831. Treaty with Indians was signed there in 1875. It was raided in the rebellion of 1885 and not restored after the rebellion. It was a small establishment in 1862, principally used as a provision post for dried meat. Its location is shown on sheet 317 Sectional Map, also on maps No. 8 and 100.
See Fort Duquesne.
See Lake St. John.
French fort on right bank of Mississippi river above Baton Rouge. It was built before 1750 as one of the chain of French forts from Quebec to Gulf of Mexico. It was built with four bastions and stockaded. Shown on map No. 143.
A small Hudson's Bay Co. establishment near Fort William, Lake Superior, about 9 to 10 miles up the Kaministiquia river, on the north bank at Pointe de Meuron, maintained as a check upon the North West Co. Location shown on map No. 144.
Ancient French fort near Brest, Bradore Bay, on lower St. Lawrence. It was in the original grant to Courtemanche of 1630 and marked the western limit of the grant. It is shown on Del'Isle's map of 1703 (No. 18) at mouth of Eskimo river on Baie des Espagnols or Esquimaux. It was built by Courtemanche in 1702 and named by him after Louis Phelypeaux, Comte de Pontchartrain. Bradore bay was called Baie des Islettes by Cartier and was known as Baie des Espagnols in 1740. It was sometimes called Baie de Bonne Espérance. The Eskimo river is now named St. Paul or Des Esquimaux. The fort is shown on many old maps sometimes named "old" fort. Maps No. 24, 18, 96, 95, 97, 105, 118.
1704. Courtemanche's chart of his voyage indicated a fort at the bottom of Bradore bay.
1705. Courtemanche stated that he had two establishments, Pontchartrain and Baie Phelypeau.
1714. The Baye Phelypeau concession was granted to Courtemanche for life and he was appointed Commandant pour le Roi on coast of Labrador.
1718. The concession was confirmed to the widow of Courtemanche and family. Her son, Brouagne, was appointed commandant. The family exercised the privileges of the lease until 1760.
1760. Governor Murray dispossessed Brouange and transferred the property to Mackenzie, Lymburner and others who were in possession until 1779.
1804. Lymburner & Co. sold to William Grant. (See "Labrador" by Gosling. p. 132.)
See Fort Detroit.
The following forts were captured by Pontiac:-
Known also as Old Poplar Fort, Poplar House, Fort du Tremble, des Trembles, aux Trembles, Tremblier. North West Co. fort on Assiniboine river, a few miles above Meadow Portage (Portage la Prairie), in Section 6, Tp. 11, R. 7 West of Principal Meridian. It was one of the oldest posts of the English traders on the Assiniboine. Alex. Henry Jr. states that is was abandoned in the autumn of 1781 after being attacked by Indians and three defenders killed. Maps No. 1 & 3.
See Fort Alexandria on Assiniboine River.
Small North West Co. post at the outlet of Poplar river, lake Winnipeg, east shore. Shown on map of 1817, No. 9.
North West Co. post on right bank of Winnipeg river above confluence of the English river. 3½ miles below Terre Blanche portage. It was an old French post which had been re-established by the North West Co. in 1797. Alex. Henry Jr. visited the post in 1800.
Known also as Methye Portage. It was first crossed by Pond 1778. The Hudson's Bay Co. maintained a post at north end of portage at the Clearwater river. Shown on map No. 8 (1857) and 41. It was not an important post and was of service principally to those crossing the portage, as a depot. The main post was on Methye lake and the present name is Portage La Loche House. The North West Co. also maintained a post on the portage for similar purposes. See Athabaska to the Bay by F. H. Kitto for description of portage.
The first fort constructed in the locality was La Reine 1738 constructed by Vérendrye at the beginning of the portage. In 1796 the Hudson's Bay Co. built a fort on the site of or near the old French fort which they had occupied after the withdrawal of the French garrison. This fort was sometimes called Assiniboine River fort and later Portage-la-Prairie. In September 1813 McLeod built an enlargement to the fort of 1796 which the H. B. Co. continued to operate until about 1870. The North West Co. also constructed a fort at the Portage mentioned by McDonnell in his journal of 1794. Harmon in 1805 described this as "a miserable fort but beautifully situated". It was sometimes called Fort Des Prairies or Fort La Reine.
This site was always famous in the western fur trade. Fort La Reine was one of the chief French trading posts until the cession of Canada. After that it was occupied by the Hudson's Bay Co. who remained until 1870. The portage was 12 miles across to lake Manitoba. Goods were carried by the French on this portage to Fort Dauphin. The portage began 5 miles below Poplar House, just below a willow covered island in the river. The present city Portage la Prairie occupies the site. The place was also called Prairie portage, Meadow, and Plain portage.
See Mille Vaches.
French fort on the south shore of lake Erie, site now occupied by Erie, Pennsylvania. Built in 1753. Bougainville 1757 says "it was built of cut stones and square timbers and was situated 7 leagues from fort De la Rivière-au-Boeuf and from Niagara, at the entrance of a large bay 1½ leagues in depth and ½ league in width. This post is for trade with fort Au Boeuf and Machault and is a necessary entrepôt". The fort was located at the beginning of the portage route from lake Erie to the Ohio river, which route had been opened about 1728. The first carry on this route was from the fort to river Au Boeuf 7 miles (now called French Creek.) The fort was listed as a King's Post for trade. One account states that the fort was surrendered to the British 1760, another that it was destroyed by the French in 1759, and another that is was surrendered to Pontiac in 1763. On La Hontan's map of 1703 (No. 20) the beginning of the route is shown as "Landing Place", and Bellin's map 1774 (No. 15) shows the portage. The fort is shown on maps No. 97, 96 and 119
See Fort Churchill.
North West Co. fort on an island in the North Saskatchewan river near present town of Prince Albert. It was in ruins in 1808 as seen by Alexander Henry Jr.
Hudson's Bay Co. fort on the north shore of Slave lake near the mouth of Yellowknife river. Built by Alexander Mackenzie in 1790. It was afterwards moved to an island in the north arm of the lake (about 1850) and the name changed to Fort Rae after the explorer Rae. Maps No. 8, 100 & 101.
Hudson's Bay Co. fort on Mackenzie river about 40 miles below the outlet of Great Slave lake, built about 1850. (Several old forts had been built and abandoned on Hay river near its mouth and on Mackenzie river below fort Simpson.)
French fort on left bank Mississippi river at Chickasaw Bluffs, 160 miles below mouth of Ohio river, located near the present village of Tiptonville, Tennessee. Built by La Salle in 1682 and was in ruins before 1763. Shown on maps No. 93, 96, 98 & 145.
North West Co. post on North Saskatchewan river below Rocky Rapids, about 3½ miles upstream from Bucklake House in the circular bend of the river, on north side of the river, 114°48'W. It was called by Thompson, Fort Muskey or Mukako in 1809. Alex. Henry Jr. was there in 1811 and says "an establishment of ours on the north side, abandoned several years ago, situation being improper for trade, the remains of which are still standing. It was the most inconvenient spot for an establishment on the river, being surrounded by a deep swamp." Shown on map 11.
Hudson's Bay Co. fort on the right (south) bank of Qu'Appelle river, 103°46'W. 90 miles west of old Fort Espérance, at the mouth of Jumping Deer creek between the Fishing lakes. It was built before 1804. Sometimes called Qu'Appelle Lakes fort. It appears on the 1872 list of posts and was probably discontinued after 1880.
The name Qu'Appelle is derived from an Indian legend that the shores are haunted by a spirit that often wails during the night resembling a human voice. The voyageurs applied the name Qu'Appelle.
The North West Co. also maintained a post built by John McDonald in 1808 on a "beautiful small lake", and the X. Y. Co. had also an adjoining post.
Settlement was made by Champlain in 1608 and the first fort was built (1608), on the cliff, on the site of Dufferin Terrace. Until about 1670, Tadoussac was the chief trading post, then Quebec became the headquarters until Montreal was selected about 1700. The fortress was captured by Kirke in 1629 and returned to France in 1632 by the treaty of St. Germain-en-Laye. Frontenac repulsed Phipps in 1690. Wolfe captured Quebec September 1759. De Levis was repulsed by General Murray 1760 and Montgomery was repulsed by Carleton in 1775.
Small Hudson's Bay Co. post at Baie Quetachou Manicouagan on the lower St. Lawrence about 62°45'W. Shown on Bouchette's map of 1846. Map 24.
Hudson's Bay Co. fort on an island at southern end of Marian lake, tributary to North Arm of Great Slave lake. Present location and previous site shown on map No. 25 Western sheet of Great Slave lake. Originally Fort Rae was built at mouth of Yellowknife river 1790 and called Fort Providence. About 1850 it was moved to a point of land near the northern terminus of the North Arm on east shore about 10 miles south of Frank Channel. It was again moved about 15 miles farther north to present location. On removal from mouth of Yellowknife river, the name was changed from Providence to Rae after the explorer Dr. Rae. Maps 8, 100-101.
Hudson's Bay Co. post on Porcupine river, east of the international boundary line. Originally built by Hudson's Bay Co. (about 1860) farther west on Alaska Territory and in 1869 moved to British territory. It was abandoned about 1870. Shown on map No. 84.
Hudson's Bay Co. fort at confluence of Rapid river, outlet of lake La Ronge, and Churchill river, near Frog Portage. Established before 1860 to supersede fort on shore of lake La Ronge and is still maintained under present name of Stanley House. The post was originally about 10 miles east of Stanley Mission and is now located on the south side of the river opposite Stanley. Maps No. 8 and 100.
North West Co. establishment originally on Old Fort Island, at the head of Portage Bay (now called Keewatin Bay), at one outlet of Lake of the Woods. Constructed between 1790 and 1800 at the beginning of portages on route between Lake of the Woods and Fort Alexander. This post is shown on Thompson's map 1826 (No. 7) and Capt. Palliser 1857 speaks of "the small trading post". It is also shown on Hind's map of 1858 and described by him. This post was operated by the Hudson's Bay Co. after the coalition of 1821 who constructed a new building about 1840. In 1861 the post was moved from the island to the mainland. Dr. Bell says in his report of 1872: "The post consisted of two long one story houses, a shop, and dwelling. It was built on what afterwards became Main Street of the town Rat Portage. It remained on that site until moved across the street in 1881. In 1882 the post was burned. In 1872 it was only a small clearing surrounded by unbroken forest." Rat Portage is now Kenora. See Kaministiquia route and Lac du Bonnet. Maps No. 8 and Sectional Sheet No. 74
See Lac La Biche.
North West Co. post on Red Cedar lake north shore, about 25 miles from Turtle lake, state of Minnesota, on the route between Lake of the Woods and Red river. Thompson was there in 1798 when the post was in charge of John Sayer. This post was also called Upper Red Cedar Lake House and the present name is Cass lake. Shown on Thompson's map 1812 No. 7.
The North West Co. had a small post on Red Deer river north bank about 20 miles above its outlet in Red Deer lake, tributary to lake Winnipigoos. The Hudson's Bay Co. also maintained a small post on the south bank, two miles below the N. W. Co. Both posts are shown on map No. 37 of 1894. N. W. Co. post was on boundary line between Manitoba and Saskatchewan.
North West Co. post at north end of Red lake, Ontario. It was mentioned by Duncan Cameron in 1786 and is shown on the map of Mackenzie's route 1789 (Arrowsmith 1801) No. 4, also map of Harmon's Journal 1805 No. 8, and on maps No. 8, 100, 12, 101. Location of post is shown on map No. 146 on Post Narrows near east end of lake. This fort was taken over by the Hudson's Bay Co. in 1821 and has been operated to date, a continuous period of nearly 150 years since first built. It appears on all the Company lists and on all Arrowsmith maps and on Hind's map 1858.
North West Co. post on Red Lake, source of Lac Rouge river, a tributary of Red river, in Fond-du-Lac district. Being in State of Minnesota this post with others was relinquished to the United States in 1796. The Hudson's Bay Co. also operated a small post on Red Lake. The country was early exhausted of furs, although at one time a famous region for beaver. Shown on maps No. 3 and 7.
North West Co. fort at the junction of Little Red river and Peace river. It was called Fort de la Rivière Rouge and was known as Little Red River fort to distinguish it from Old Red River fort on Athabaska river (Fort McKay).
The first fort was built by Boyer, independent, in 1788. It was the first post in this region and was afterwards abandoned. The North West Co. was represented by John Thomson who built a fort, 28 ft. by 24 ft. on north side of Peace river at mouth of Little Red river, in 1798 or 1799, known as Little Red river or Fort Grand Marais. This fort was abandoned and in ruins in 1805. The Hudson's Bay Co. rebuilt this fort and have operated it to date. Maps No. 11 and 35. Little Red river is now called the Mikkwa river.
The present Red river, flowing north into lake Winnipeg, was known as Lower Red river by the North West Co. and the Assiniboine river as the Upper Red river. See under names:—
Several additional posts on the Red river connecting with the Fond-du-Lac posts, not identified.
Hudson's Bay Co. post at mouth of Nipigon river on right side, head of Nipigon harbour. Mentioned in Grant's Ocean to Ocean. Established soon after coalition of 1821 on site of, or near to, the old French fort Nipigon. It was not included in the 1869 list nor later and was probably closed about 1865. See Nipigon House.
Small Hudson's Bay Co. post on Reed lake, 54°30'N. & 100°30'W., about 40 miles north of Moose lake, tributary to Nelson river. It was built by Ross under direction of Thompson 1794. In 1805 Thompson, (now in employ of North West Co.) built a house for the North West Co. some distance east of the H. B. Co. post. This post appears only on the H. B. Co. 1856 list.
Explorer's house at the extreme eastern end of Great Slave lake. Built by McLeod of the Hudson's Bay Co. for Captain Back in 1833, at mouth of Lockhart river. Now in ruins. It was operated as a fur trading post for some years by the Company. Tyrrell in 1901 described the ruined fort as having been beautifully situated on a green terrace 20 feet above the harbour and 200 feet from the shore. The country was thinly wooded with young spruce. The fort, which had been burned, was 30 by 50 feet with three chimneys and five open fireplaces, five rooms with fireplace in each. There were 2 smaller buildings 18 feet square. Only the stone chimneys now remain.
Hudson's Bay Co. post on the right bank of the Pelly or Yukon river 64°20'N. Just north of Dawson City. It is shown on map No. 122 and on map Alaska 1897 No. 83. This fort was probably superseded by Dawson.
See fort La Chine.
See Fort Hope (3)
Hudson's Bay Co. fort on south shore of Great Slave lake about 4 miles south of mouth Slave river. It was first built in 1815 and marked the most northerly operations of the Hudson's Bay Co. until after the union of 1821. After the union, the present fort was constructed on the site of the first fort. The first North West Co. fort on Slave lake was built by Cuthbert Grant and Leroux for Peter Pond in 1786 on the Slave river, left bank, a few miles from its mouth. This was called Slave Fort. A short time after, it was moved to Moose Deer Island, a few miles from the mouth of Slave river and opposite Fort Resolution. There the North West Co. remained until the coalition of 1821 when Slave fort was abandoned. Maps 8, 100, 101 and 25 (part 12).
French military fort in seigniory granted to Pierre de Sorel (Saurel), Captain in Carignan regiment 1642, constructed at mouth of Sorel river, guarding approach from the south. Governor Montmagny named the river Richelieu at first and built the first fort in 1642. Pierre de Sorel built the second fort in 1665. The river was sometimes called Sorel and Chambly because of the forts erected on its banks. The first Anglican church in what was called Canada was established at Sorel in 1785 although services had been conducted from July 4th, 1784. Map No. 94 Del'Isle 1700.
Hudson's Bay Co. fort erected 1749 on Factory Island, Richmond Gulf, east shore of Hudson bay. In 1756 it was taken down and rebuilt at mouth of Great Whale river. In 1759 it was closed. It was not included in the lists of posts in 1821 and 1869. In 1923 it was re-established and named Richmond Gulf post. It is shown on Bellin's map 1755 (No. 93) and Rocque's map 1763 (No. 96).
The first trading post on lake Melville, Hamilton Inlet, Labrador, was erected by the French in 1734 on or near the site of the present North West River post. In 1785 a Quebec Fur Trading Co. established a post at the outlet of lake Melville adjacent to site of present Rigolette. It was situated at the eastern limit of the grant to De Courtemanche as extended in 1702 to include the coast from Brest to Hamilton Inlet. Trade was principally with the Esquimaux.
The Hudson's Bay Co. erected their fort at Rigolette in 1834-35 and in 1837 bought out their competitors. The North West Co. does not appear to have been established on lake Melville. Rigolette was called also Hamilton Inlet and Esquimaux Bay Fort. It is in operation at present. Shown on map No. 24 and 61.
Called sometimes Fort Le Boeuf. A French fort, 30 leagues from Machault, the entrepôt for Fort Duquesne. It was built in 1753 and is included in Bougainville's list 1757 who names it also Fort Roial. Was situated about 10 miles from the shore of lake Eric at the head waters of the Au Boeuf river, now called French creek. It was a King's post for trade. Location shown on D'Anville's map 1755 (No. 97) and Bellin's 1755 (No. 93). It was a square fort of quarried stone and palisaded. Surrendered to British 1761 and captured by Pontiac June 18, 1763. This was one of the forts commanding the route from Presqu'Isle on lake Erie to the Ohio river.
Hudson's Bay Co. fort on Liard river near the mouth of Black river, 60°15'N. It was built about 1800 and was the first fort on Liard river. Generally named Fort Liard on Arrowsmith maps. It has been in continuous operation to present date. The North West Co. also maintained a post in the locality at the time of coalition 1821. Shown maps No. 8, 21, 100, 101.
North West Co. fort at the junction of river Aux Morts and Red river, near the outlet of the latter in lake Winnipeg. River aux Morts is now called Nettley Creek. It was built about 1803 and operated by the North West Co. until the time of coalition 1821 after which time it was discontinued. It was situated about 9 miles from the lake. The name arose from a massacre of Cree Indians by Sioux about 1780.
Hudson's Bay Co. fort at mouth of Desert river, a branch of the Gatineau river, on the left bank. It was probably located on site of present Maniwaki. It is shown on map of Maniwaki Reservation (1867) on page 322 of "Indian Treaties and Surrenders" vol. 1-2, also on Arrowsmith map of 1857 (No. 8).
Hudson's Bay Co. fort on Hayes river Manitoba below the falls and rapids, about 30 miles below Swampy lake. Established before 1812, at which time it was in charge of John McLeod, chief trader. It was included in the 1856 list of posts but omitted from the 1869 and later lists. Shown on maps No. 8, 140, 77, 100 & 101. Sometimes called Old Rock House.
Five trading posts were known as Rocky Mountain House:—
North West Co. post on North Saskatchewan river, 1¼ miles above mouth of Clearwater river, 3 miles below Pangman's tree (1790) on north bank of river, 70 yards from river's edge. It stood on high bank, well adapted for defense as block-houses commanded the fort. Of exceptional strength being in territory of Blackfeet Indians. Hence it was sometimes called "Blackfeet Post". Built by John McDonald of Garth in 1802, although the first structure was erected in 1799. It was visited by Thompson in 1800 and 1806 and by A. Henry Jr. 1811. It was the uppermost permanent post of the North West Co. on the Saskatchewan river. Ruins were still visible in 1886. After union of the two companies it was occupied by the Hudson's Bay Co. for many years and finally discontinued in 1875.
The Hudson's Bay Co. constructed a fort near by (about 114°59'W. & 52°22'N.) called Acton House or Rocky Mt. House, both names being given on some maps. See Acton House. Maps No. 8, 3 6, 11, 100, 101.
Called also Old Rocky Mt. Fort.
North West Co. fort on Mackenzie river about 123°20'W. & 62°15'N. Built by John Thomson, clerk in N. W. Co., 1800, "in full view of Rocky Mts. at whose smallness I was greatly surprised." It was soon abandoned and spoken of by Alex. Mackenzie in 1805 as Old Rocky Mt. fort. Ruins are now visible in Camsell Bend near mouth of Nahanni river. It is marked "Old Fort" on Arrowsmith map 1832 No. 101. See also maps No. 3, 1, 100, 8.
The following forts were also called Rocky mountain House, namely:
Hudson's Bay Co. trading post on lower St. Lawrence at mouth of river Romaine (about 60°30'W.). Originally this was French post built before 1710. It stood in the territory granted to the Labrador Company of Quebec 1780. This Company dissolved in 1820 and the Hudson's Bay Co. acquired the post. It was reported as a Hudson's Bay Co. post in 1831 and is still in operation. It is shown on Bouchette's map 1846 and on Bayfield's of 1857. The post and river were also called Olomanoshibo, Ouramane, Grand Romaine, and Old Romaine. See Musquarro.
French fort, site now occupied by present city of Natchez, Mississippi. Stood on left bank of the river, about 150 miles north of mouth. It was built by Bienville 1716, of wood with a ditch, on high bluff 200 feet above the river. The place was destroyed and many of the inhabitants murdered in 1729 by Natchez Indians. Fort was rebuilt and came into possession of the English 1763 by the Treaty of Paris and the name was changed to Fort Parmure. It is marked "destroyed" on Bellin's map 1755 No. 93, also on Bowen map 1763 No. 98, and Rocque's map 1763, No. 96. See also Palairet map 1755 No. 119 and Mitchell map 1775 No. 111.
French fort at forks of Red and Assiniboine rivers, on south bank of Assiniboine river. Built by Vérendrye 1734-5. Was deserted before 1737 as unnecessary. St. Pierre wintered there 1751-52, Fort La Reine having been burnt. It was a small log fort palisaded. Legardeur St. Pierre in 1751 built his own fort on the north side of the Assiniboine. Near the site of Fort Rouge and the site of La Pierre's fort other small forts and shelter houses were built by Bruce and Boyer in 1780, and by Alex. Henry 1803, also the original Fort Gibraltar 1807. Fort Rouge is marked "abandoned" on Jeffery's map 1762, also on Rocque's 1763 (No. 96). Its location is shown on the south side of the Assiniboine river on maps of Paris 1737, 1740 & 1750, also on Bellin's map 1755 (No. 93). See Winnipeg Forts.
French fort on the site of Toronto, built 1749 by Chevalier de Portneuf by order of De la Jonquiere, and named after Rouillé, Minister of Marine, at Paris. It was built of oak logs, to control the fur trade from the north and to command the portage from lake Ontario to Georgian Bay.
It is included in Bougainville's list 1757 who calls it Toronto and says that it was built to prevent the northern Indians from trading at Choueguen (Oswego), "a little fort of palisades to sell eau-de-vie to Indians for purpose of counterbalancing the commerce which they would have at Choueguen (Oswego)". He also names it fort St. Victor, a King's Post.
The fort was deserted in 1759 and soon occupied by the British. A settlement was made and was called "Muddy York" in 1793. The fort and settlement were probably abandoned for a few years after the cession of Canada until the arrival of U. E. Loyalists from the United States in 1784 who changed the name to York. It was incorporated as Toronto in 1834. Shown on maps No. 93, 119, 112 and 111.
North West Co. establishment built by Roy for the Company about 1797, at the mouth of Salt River (tributary of the Red river) about 8 miles south of Henry's House at mouth of Park river, North Dakota. It was visited by Thompson 1798, but had probably been destroyed before 1800 when A. Henry Jr. passed.
Hudson's Bay Co. fort at north end of Vancouver Island near present Port Hardy. Built 1849. Shown on map No. 8.
Hudson's Bay Co. post on lake Ste. Anne, a tributary of Sturgeon river, about 35 miles west of Edmonton. It was established about 1870. The settlement was made by old employees of the Hudson's Bay Co. Does not appear on lists of forts later than 1894. Maps 13 & 35.
See Fort Albany.
See Fort Vincennes.
Old French trading post on lower St. Lawrence at mouth St. Augustine river, near west end of Strait of Belle Isle. Built before 1720. The St. Augustine concession was granted to De Lavaltrie in 1720 for life who operated it until his death in 1750. It was then leased to various persons for short terms. In 1761 Governor Murray granted the concession to Morisseaux for 4 years. In 1804 Lymburner sold the posts &c to Wm. Grant. It was leased to the Labrador Co. in 1780. In 1854 the Hudson's Bay Co. decided to build and were established there from that date to present. Map No. 67.
The original name of Rupert's House, Hudson's Bay Co. fort at mouth of Rupert river. This was the first fort built on Hudson or James bays. Built by Groseilliers in 1668, Zachary Gillam being in command of the ship "Nonsuch". In 1670 it was renamed Rupert's House. Was rebuilt and strengthened in 1677. In 1686 it was captured by the French and destroyed in part. The French then rebuilt it and named it fort St. Jacques. It was recaptured by the English in 1693, then again by the French in 1695 and by the English in 1696. In 1697, by terms of the Treaty of Ryswick, was given to the French who held it until 1713 when it was finally restored to the Hudson's Bay Co. by the Treaty of Utrecht. On Mitchell's map 1755 (No. 111) and on D'Anville's 1755 (No. 97) it is marked "abandoned". Shown on Rocque's map 1763 (No. 96), on Del'Isle's 1700 (94), and Bellin's 1744 (No. 95). Rupert's river was called "Nemiscan" by the French.
French fort at west end of Lake of the Woods, at the Northwest angle, on a peninsula extending far into the lake. Built by Vérendrye in 1732 and named after Charles de Beauharnois, Governor of Canada. It was a strong fort enclosed by four rows of palisades 12 to 15 feet high, built with four bastions, and the stockade enclosed a church, main buildings, magazine and storehouse, and was the most elaborate of the French outposts. Bougainville 1757 described it as "about 60 leagues from St. Pierre and situated on a peninsula extending into Lac Des Bois". The French had abandoned it before 1763. It is shown on map of French forts 1756 and was probably deserted soon after that date, the garrison being withdrawn. Supposed to have been burned by Indians during Pontiac's rebellion 1763. Ruins of the old fort were discovered in 1908. Some portion of it was still standing in 1775 when Alex. Henry visited the place. This fort was not occupied nor rebuilt by either the North West Co. or the Hudson's Bay Co. both of whom erected forts near by called Fort Lake of the Woods (q.v.). Various names were given to the lake, e.g., Minitie, Des Bois, Pikwedina, Sagaigan, Nimigon, Clearwater, Woody, Whitefish, and Lac Des Sioux. Maps No. 93 & 96.
French fort on St. Croix river, 40 leagues upstream from its junction with the Mississippi river. It was built about 1700 and commanded approach to Mississippi river from the west end of lake Superior. It is included in Bougainville's list and shown on Bellin's map 1755 (No. 93) as abandoned, also on Rocque's map 1763 No. 96.
French fortified post at mouth of St. Francis river, west end of lake St. Peter in St. Lawrence river, on right bank. It guarded a settlement of Abenakis Indians and is included in Bougainville's list.
French fort on right bank of Mississippi river near mouth of St. Francis river. It was sometimes called Fort Kappa from the Indian village located there. It was located half way between the mouths of the St. Francis and Arkansas rivers. Maps No. 93, 96, 119 & n 111.
French fort on left bank of Red river in country of Natchez Indians, about 100 miles upstream from the junction with Mississippi river, established 1714. Its site is now the town of Natchitoches, Louisiana. Shown on Bellin's map 1755 (No. 93) and Bowen's map 1763 (No. 98).
See Fort Arkansas.
See Crown Point.
See Fort L'Arbre Croche.
See Fort St. Charles (1).
Originally a North West Co. fort at east end of Stuart lake, B. C., built by John Stuart and Simon Fraser 1806. At first was known as Stuart Lake Fort or Fort Nakasley and was called Fort New Caledonia by Fraser. Harmon was in charge from 1811 to 1817. After coalition in 1821, this fort became the chief Hudson's Bay Co. post in New Caledonia. Has been operated by the Company to date, or 123 years since established. Maps No. 8, 100, 101.
See Fort La Tour.
Five different forts were constructed at different times near the present location and all were called fort St. John.
(1) First fort was built by the North West Co. on the left or north bank of the Peace river a few miles below mouth of Pine river, about 121°W, twenty miles below the present St. John and 100 miles above Dunvegan. Built in 1805. In the autumn of 1823 this fort was burned by the Indians and Guy Hughes and four men were massacred. Harmon speaks of visiting this fort in 1810 and in 1833 McLean describes the fort as in ruins and deserted.
(2) In 1860 the Hudson's Bay Co. constructed a second fort on the south shore at the mouth of North Pine River.
(3) In 1873 the Company erected a new log fort on the north shore opposite.
(4) In 1885 that fort was abandoned and another one constructed across the river on the south shore.
(5) In 1925 the fifth and present fort St. John was built at the beginning of Sikanny Trail.
French fort on Richelieu river, site of present town St. Johns. It was built before 1750, of palisades with 4 bastions. It is included in Bougainville's list 1757. It was surrendered to the Americans Novr. 2, 1775 after a spirited resistance of two months by Major Preston and after the fall of Chambly.
North West Co. fort on end of peninsula southern extremity of St. Joseph island at outlet of Sault Ste. Marie, shown on Standard Sheet No. 7 as old fort St. Joseph. Built by British troops about 1765. In 1792 the North West Co. built an establishment for constructing canoes for the interior. It was visited by Harmon in 1800. A settlement was made near the fort in 1790. The fort stood on a rise of ground joined to the island by a narrow neck.
Small French fort on east shore of lake Michigan at mouth of St. Joseph river, a subsidiary fort to the main fort St. Joseph about 50 miles up the St. Joseph river. It was occupied by the British 1761 after the cession of Canada.
French fort on right bank of St. Joseph river about 20 leagues from its mouth in lake Michigan. At present the town of South Bend, Indiana. This was the main fort in that locality and commanded the portage route to the Kankakee river, a tributary of the Illinois river and from lake Erie by the Miamis river to St. Joseph river and the Mississippi. It is named in Bougainville's list 1757 as in charge of M. Le Verrier and as a King's post. After being occupied by the British on the cession of Canada it was captured by Pontiac (1763) and the garrison killed. It was one of the earliest forts in the west and was visited by La Salle in 1679. See maps No. 97, 111, 119 and 96. For the portages see map 97.
See Fort Nashwaak.
See Fort Detroit.
North West Co. fort on Saskatchewan river a few miles above Fort à la Corne, near Pine Creek. A. Henry Jr. in 1808 going upstream passed Nepoin, then A la Corne (St. Louis), then this N. W. Co. fort St. Louis, of which he says, "passed old establishment of our own, which has been abandoned since 1805, and called St. Louis from its proximity to the old French fort below".
See Fort à la Corne.
See Fort Crevècoeur.
See Fort Mobile.
See Fort Moose.
See Fort Fond-du-Lac (2).
French seal fishing post on strait of Belle Isle. Shown map No. 24. In 1755 it was granted to Boucault & Foucault by Beauharnois and Hocquart. In 1740 granted by Hocquart to Constantin. In 1748 Constantin operated the post for seal hunting. In 1751 Constantin died and St. Modet was granted to Breard for 9 years by Jonquière and Bigot. In 1753 it was granted by the King to Hocquart. In 1756 Bigot granted it to Taché. In 1763 Governor Murray granted it to Taché for 3 years. In 1838 A. Talbot purchased the post from J. Dumaresque and operated it for at least 10 years. It is included in Bougainville's list of 1757.
French fort on the east bank of Mississippi river near or at the mouth of the Wisconsin river. It was destroyed before 1762. It is marked "destroyed" on Jeffery's map 1762, but is shown as in condition on Bellin's map 1755 (No. 93) and on D'Anville 1755 (No. 97) it is named "ancien fort de Francois de S. Nicolas", and No. 96.
Old French trading post near mouth of Eskimo river, called also Eskimo River post. Built by Courtemanche (Legardeur de) before 1701, within his concession from Kegaska river to Hamilton river, and is shown on Courtemanche's chart 1704 as located on the first bay west of Eskimo river, Labrador. In 1706 Vaudreuil and Raudot granted St. Paul seigniory to Godefroy de St. Paul, who with his descendants held the seigniory till 1781 when the rights seem to have lapsed. In 1781 the Sieur St. Paul sold all his rights and claims to N. &. P. Lloyd who maintained the post until 1805. It was then sold to William Grant and in 1808 to Lymburner and others. In 1828 the Labrador Co. sold a part to Louis Chevalier, who operated a salmon fishery, and his descendant L. D. Chevalier operated the post in 1891. Shown on map No. 24.
French fort on Rainy lake first built by La Nouë in 1717. In that year La Nouë was sent by Vaudreuil to establish posts at Kaministiquia (where a fort had been erected by Dulhut many years before); then to go on to Rainy lake (called Takamamiononis) to establish a second post; then to acquire information for establishment of a third post at the lake of the Assinipoels. Little is known of his expedition. In 1731 La Jemeraye constructed fort St Pierre for Vérendrye at the outlet of Rainy lake. Its site was about 2 miles east of the present fort Frances and half a mile down the river from the lake. This old French fort was destroyed before 1763 and is marked "destroyed" on D'Anville's map of 1756. It is shown on Bellin's map of 1755 (No. 93) and on Rocque's map 1763 (No. 96). The North West Co. built a fort on the site of the old French fort and called it Fort Rainy lake or fort Lac la Pluie. This fort surrendered to Capt. D'Orsonnens for Lord Selkirk Oct. 3, 1816. The Hudson's Bay Co. also operated at that time a fort near the present Fort Frances built in 1790 and called Rainy Lake fort. In 1820 the Hudson's Bay Co. erected the present Fort Frances near the site of the old French fort (called Takamamionen in 1717) and named it Fort Frances after Sir George Simpson's wife. This post was operated by the Company until about 1900 and the name has continued in the settlement and the Indian reservation. Bougainville 1757 describing posts in La Mer d'Ouest says "St. Pierre is situated on left shore of lake Takamamionen or Lac la Pluie, 300 leagues from Michilimackinak and (100) from Kaministigoyia or Trois Rivières at the northwest end of lake Superior."
French fort on right bank of St Lawrence river on the international boundary line 45°N. In the list of Bougainville 1757 it is mentioned as "a new mission of Jesuits for the Iroquois". St. Regis was defended by de Salaberry in the war of 1812 and temporarily captured by the Americans.
French fort on the Sorel (Richelieu) river about 6 or 7 miles above fort Chambly on the right bank. Built 1665 by M. De Salières. It was abandoned before 1757. Shown on maps No. 18 & 97. Called also Ste. Thérésa.
See Fort Severn.
See Fort Baie-des-Puans.
See Fort Baie-des-Puans.
North West Co. post within the basin of the Columbia river. Built in Nov. 1809 by David Thompson, near mouth of present Ashley creek, in Montana, about 1 mile southwest of present town Woodlin on Nor. Pac. R'y. And near the town of Thompson. Shown on map No. 5.
French fort, built about 1750, at the head of Sandusky bay, lake Erie, at outlet of Sandusky river on left bank, a few miles west of the present city of Sandusky, Ohio. It was surrendered to British forces at cession of Canada and garrisoned. On May 16, 1763, the fort was captured by Pontiac and the garrison murdered. It commanded the route from lake Erie by the Sandusky and Scioto rivers to the Ohio river. Shown on maps No. 95, 96, 111, 112. Mitchell's map of 1775 shows the fort as garrisoned.
Small Hudson's Bay Co. post on Hamilton river, Labrador, on left bank, about 40 miles above North West River House. It was built before 1844; Closed about 1880; the site of the clearing seen by Low 1895; reopened about 1895 and still in operation. Maps No. 24 & 61.
A small post of the North West Co. in Winnipeg river on Sand lake (near Kenora). It was on the canoe route from Lake of the Woods to Fort Alexander on Winnipeg lake. It was named in the 1820 list of posts and was taken over by the Hudson's Bay Co. after the coalition 1821 and called Sandy Point House. It appears on the Company lists to 1872 and was probably closed about 1880.
North West Co. post on Sand Lake near Red Cedar lake, Fond-du-Lac district, lake Superior, Minnesota. The route of the North West Co. from lake Superior to the Red river and the west (in addition to the regular trade route from Fort William to Rainy lake, Lake of the Woods, lake Winnipeg &c) was from Fond-du-Lac, by the St. Louis river, Sand lake, Red Cedar and Red lakes, to the Red river, and thence north. This route was explored by David Thompson 1798. Sandy Lake House with other posts on American territory was surrendered to the U.S. 1796.
An old French fort, strongly built and palisaded, on south shore of lake St. Louis, St. Lawrence river, above the Lachine rapids, now Caughnawaga. It was included in Bougainville's list 1757 and contained a Jesuit mission for the Iroquois where 350 Indians were settled having lands, cattle &c. Trade was carried on for the benefit of the Jesuits.
At the falls or rapids of Ste. Marie. First built as a Jesuit mission by Père Marquette 1668. Owing to war with the Iroquois the fortified mission was abandoned in 1689. A French fort was soon after built on the north side of the rapids. In 1750, Jonquière, the Governor, granted to Chevalier de Repentigny six leagues for erection of a fort. This was on the south shore and was called Fort Sauvage (see map No. 10) and was also known as fort Sault Ste. Marie. It was located at the Mission of Ste. Marie, just west of St. George's island. The palisade surrounding the fort extended 110 feet each way and enclosed several houses and a redoubt. It is included in Bougainville's list of 1757. The American fort Brady was afterwards constructed on the site of this French fort and mission, see map No. 15. This fort was surrendered to the British 1760-1. It was visited by A. Henry in 1762, was captured and partly burned by Pontiac in 1763. The garrison had been withdrawn to Michilimackinac before Pontiac's attack, and on Mitchell's map of 1755 (No. 111) this fort and mission are marked "abandoned". After the war of American independence, this fort together with the peninsula of Michigan was held by the British forces until 1796. The second French fort on the north shore was reconstructed some time after the American revolution and became the base for operations of the North West Co. and later the Hudson's Bay Co. Bellin's map 1744 (No. 15) shows the location of the mission on the south shore. Arrowsmith maps No. 101 and 100 show a Hudson's Bay Co. fort on the north shore. Sault Ste. Marie under the French became the centre of the fur trade in that region and was the central mart for the whole north-west. It was regarded by the Ottawas as their preserve in 1650. The North West Co. was early established here. In 1792 they were said to have several houses and stores. They built a road around the portage and in 1797-98 constructed the first Sault canal on the Canadian shore, half-a-mile long with one lock 58 ft. long, 8 ft. 9 ins. wide, with a lift of 9 feet for the passage of freight canoes. They had also a good wharf and storehouse as described by Harmon. A tow path along the shore enabled oxen to track the canoes and bateaux through the upper part of the rapids. This lock was destroyed in July 1813 by American troops from Mackinac Island, and the fort and establishment pillaged and burned. After union of the two companies in 1821, trade of Sault Ste. Marie began to decline as the Hudson's Bay Co. used the Albany route to York Factory. McLean speaks of Sault Ste. Marie as a large depot in 1833 and the Hudson's Bay Co. fort is shown on Arrowsmith map 1857 (No. 8). About 1850 a tramway operated by horses was built at the old portage succeeding the single horse and cart used before. Map of Upper Canada 1800 (No. 121) shows two forts on the south side of the strait at east end of rapids opposite the "New Portage", which was constructed when the British forces retired to Canadian side of strait in 1796. Presumably one of these forts was constructed by the Americans after retirement of the British forces.
French fort on American side of Niagara river just above the Falls and opposite Navy Island. At the cession of Canada 1761 this fort with others was surrendered to British forces. After the American revolution it was garrisoned by American troops. Location about 12 miles south of old Fort Niagara at the present city Niagara Falls. In December 1813 this fort was captured and destroyed by the British troops. On D'Anville's map 1755 (No. 57) this fort is shown as "Ancienne Maison", and on Mitchell's map 1755 (No. 111) it is called "Storehouse". On Bowen's map 1763 (No. 98) it is called "French Storehouse" and on Palairet's map 1755 (No. 119).
Hudson's Bay Co. fort built by Robert Campbell in summer of 1848 on the Pelly (Yukon) river at mouth of Lewes river about 300 miles from Fort Halkett. It was first built on a point of land between the two rivers, but on account of flooding due to ice jams in the spring of 1852 it was moved across the river and a short distance below mouth of Lewes river where its ruins are now visible. Indians from Chilkat and Chilkoot Inlets surprised Campbell when alone and pillaged and burnt the fort August 1, 1852. Shown on maps No. 122 and 8.
See Winnipeg Forts.
Fortified post in the King's Domain on Baie Sept Isles lower St. Lawrence river. It was the easternmost of the King's posts, and one of the earliest. Probably built in 1650. It was leased to Demaure in 1658; to Compagnie des Postes du Roi 1700. In the Ordinance of 1720 (Traite de Tadoussac) it is mentioned as a King's post. Was included in Bougainville's list 1757. In 1764 it was operated by Dunn, Gray, & Murray. In 1768 it was leased to James McKenzie for the North West Co. In 1821 the Hudson's Bay Co. took over this post and operated it until 1859 when it was closed and again reopened about 1870 and operated to date. It is shown on the various Company maps and on Bouchette's map 1846.
Hudson's Bay Co. post established 1922 on Hudson's Bay R'y. 137 miles north of The Pas. Present house built 1925 after former was destroyed by fire.
Hudson's Bay Co. fort at mouth of Severn river. In 1680 the Company ordered the building of a factory at New Severn river. The fort was completed in 1685 of logs with 4 bastions at mouth of Severn river on left bank. This fort was burnt by the English 1689 to prevent its capture by the French.
In 1691 the French constructed a new fort, called Ste. Thérese or Neuve Savanna, on the right bank near mouth of river (map of Del'Isle 1703 No. 18). This was captured by the English 1693. In the following year 1694 it was again captured by the French and rebuilt by them in 1701-2 on south side mouth of river. The fort was finally restored to the Hudson's Bay Co. by the Treaty of Utrecht 1713. After 1714 the fort was for a time abandoned by the Company, but in 1759 the present fort was rebuilt on the north bank and has been operated continuously to date. (Maps Nos. 1, 3, 4, 8, 18, 96, 94 and 140.
Hudson's Bay Co. post at outlet, northeast end, of lake Severn near source of Severn river. Sometimes called Big Lake. It was established in 1793 and operated until about 1870. Shown on Hind's map 1858 and on the Company map 1857 (No. 8) and on Nos. 100, 101, 68 & 140.
Hudson's Bay Co. post on right bank of Shamattawa river, tributary of Hayes river, about 45 miles from mouth of river. Shown on map No. 140 of 1913.
See fort Lac d'0rignal.
See Baie Chateau.
North West Co. fort at the mouth of Shell river, junction with the Assiniboine river, Manitoba. Built by Peter Grant 1794.
Post of Hudson's Bay Co. on Mackenzie Bay recently established.
Hudson's Bay Co. post on Shoal lake, a tributary of Lake of the Woods. Shown on Arrowsmith map 1857 (No. 8) and included in list of posts with Deed of Surrender 1869 and named on 1872 list. Closed probably about 1880.
See Swan Lake House.
Hudson's Bay Co. fort on left bank of Yakima river, state of Washington, about the location of present town Yakima. It was built later than 1821. Shown on map No. 6.
Hudson's Bay Co. fort on an island at the forks of Liard and Mackenzie rivers. It was first built by the North West Co. about 1820 and was called Fort of the Forks. After the union of 1821 name changed to fort Simpson. Maps 8, 100 & 101.
Hudson's Bay Co. fort near mouth of Naas river, B. C., built 1831-32. In 1834 it was moved to Tsimean peninsula. A new fort was built in 1860. It was closed in 1913 and burned in 1914. Maps 82 and 100.
Hudson's Bay Co. post built in 1792 on west side of Sipiwesk lake, a tributary of the Nelson river, on a rocky point. The site is now covered with a grove of poplars. It was 30 miles from Chatham House on Wintering lake. Called by Thompson Seepaywisk House. Lake shown on map 42.
See George River Fort.
See Fort Resolution.
See Fort East Main.
|1636||broke out at Quebec and was carried by Indians to the west.|
|1640||it was among the Huron missions and Indians blamed Jesuits for the plague.|
|1670||it depopulated all the northern Indians of Canada (i.e. Ontario & Quebec), and almost depopulated Tadousac.|
|1758||at Fort William Henry decimating Indians.|
|1775||at the seige of Quebec and at Halifax.|
|1763||throughout Indian settlements around Great Lakes Ohio and Mississippi valleys spreading into the West. A potent factor in ending Pontiac's rebellion.|
|1778||on the Assiniboine river and thence through the West, breaks up Indian war and lasts till 1783.|
|1780-1783||spread all over the West into far north. Lake of Woods region depopulated. Red river & Winnipeg region severely affected. Hearne reported that it destroyed nine-tenths of Chipewyans and other northern Indians. David Thompson describes the plague on Saskatchewan river 1781: "Caught in 1780 by Sioux who took clothes of massacred whites—extended across Rocky Mts. & far into north. Far more than one-half Indians died. Their dead bodies eaten by wolves and dogs who mostly died or lost their fur." Completely ended fur trade for 2 or 3 years.|
Scourges north of the Saskatchewan river in 1816, 1817, 1818, 1856, 1857, 1858, 1863, 1870-1873. Hind (vo1. 1.p. 90 & vol. 2 p. 164) describes ossuaries of dead Indians killed by small-pox.
Hudson's Bay Co. fort on Slave river below the rapids at 60º parallel. Erected 1870.
North West Co. post on Swan river, about 50 miles upstream from Swan lake, Manitoba. Built in 1800 by Harmon for the Company. It was sometimes called Elbow fort and Montagne Oiseau, or Bird Mountain fort. Maps 2 and 4. See Swan Lake House.
See fort Richelieu.
Hudson's Bay Co. fort on the Souris river near its confluence with the Assiniboine, Manitoba. This was the first of the H. B. Co. forts erected in that region. Built in 1793 for trade with the Mandan Indians. Brandon House was built in 1794 nearby and this forced the North West Co. to abandon Pine Fort (on the north bank of Assiniboine river). Map No. 3.
X. Y. Co. fort near mouth of Souris river, built about 1800 within gunshot of H. B. Co. fort Brandon on Assiniboine river. It became a North West Co. fort after fusion of the two companies in 1804. Souris or Mouse river was called St. Pierre river by Vérendrye.
See Assiniboine House No. 26 N. W. Co.
Hudson's Bay Co. fort on south Branch of Saskatchewan river about 65 miles above the forks. Built before 1790. On June 24, 1794, it was plundered and burned by the Falls Indians who had plundered Manchester House the previous autumn. Occupants were all murdered except one man who escaped. Thompson had visited the fort in October 1793. The fort was rebuilt in 1805 about six miles above the former site. Howse visited the post in 1806. Maps 106, 8, 100 & 101.
North West Co. fort about 1000 yards from the Hudson's Bay Co. fort of same name. Built about 1791. This was attacked by the Falls Indians June, 1794 after they had destroyed the H. B. Co. fort, but they were repulsed. The N. W. Co. fort was soon after abandoned. In 1805 the Company rebuilt about 6 miles farther upstream, within a few hundred paces of the new H. B. Co. fort, after abandoning their (N. W. Co.) Chesterfield House which was at the forks of Red Deer & Bow rivers. Harmon visited this fort in 1805. After union of the two Companies in 1821 the Hudson's Bay Co. took over this fort and operated it until about 1870. Map No. 8.
See Fort Caribou.
Hudson's Bay Co. post near confluence of Kaniapiskau and Swampy Bay rivers, Labrador, about 120 miles above Fort Chimo. It was built before 1832 and appears on the lists of 1857, '69 and '72. It was probably closed about 1880. In 1915 fort McKenzie was built on the site of South River House and is in operation to date.
See Fort Mamattawa.
Old Hudson's Bay Co. post established on Split Lake, Nelson river, Manitoba, between 1740 and 1760, antedating Cumberland House by about 30 years. It was one of the earliest posts off the Bay, about 140 miles from Fort Nelson. It is included in the 1856 list and shown on maps No. 8, 12, 16, 86, 100 and 101. For some years this post seems to have been closed and the present Split Lake House was established in 1886 at the north end of the lake. Supplies for this post were at first brought from Norway House down the Nelson river by York boat, but this method was abandoned in 1916 and supplies are now brought by railway from The Pas to Landing River (mile 279) and thence by canoes 26 miles to the post.
North West Co. fort at Spokane Falls, on east bank of Spokane river, 1 mile above mouth of Little Spokane river and about 10 miles northwest of present city Spokane, Washington. It was built in 1810-1811. Was the principal distributing and wintering point of the North West Co. for the Upper Columbia, Kootenay and Flathead trade and was continued by the Hudson's Bay Co. after 1821 to 1826 when it was abandoned for a new fort at Kettle Falls (Fort Colville) built under orders of Governor Simpson. In 1812 the Pacific Fur Co. built a rival house but this was purchased with Astoria in October 1813. Map No. 3.
Site of this fort is shown on map No. 35 of 1898 on left bank of Kispyox river at the confluence of Skeena river just north of Hazelton, B. C.
See Fort Rapid River.
Hudson's Bay Co. post on peninsula in Stikine Straits, B. C., 4 miles distant from mouth of Stikine river. Originally established by Russian American Fur Co. and transferred to H. B. Co. about 1841 on a 10 years lease. Arrowsmith map 1857 No. 8 shows the settlement Stikine but not marked as a fort.
See Lower Fort Garry.
See Assiniboine House No. 26.
See Fort St. James.
North West Co. fort on North Saskatchewan river at mouth of Shell river, west of Prince Albert, Saskatchewan. Said to have been built by Peter Grant 1794. It was unoccupied in 1808 when A. Henry Jr. passed who records that "remains of several old establishments appeared."
North West Co. post on Sturgeon lake about 70 miles west of lake Nipigon, Ontario. Built before 1805. It was situated near the east end of Sturgeon lake. It was probably operated by the Hudson's Bay Co. after coalition of 1821. Maps No. 5 & 79.
See Cumberland House.
North West Co. post near the mouth of Sturgeon river (lake Nipissing) about four miles below the village of Sturgeon Falls, Ontario. It was operated by the Hudson's Bay Co. after the coalition of 1821 and finally abandoned about 1890. This post carried on an active trade with the Indians of lake Temiscamingue district until the C.P. R'y. was opened. Map No. 123.
A number of the smaller forts and posts were destroyed by the French on retiring.
Hudson's Bay Co. post on Swampy lake Manitoba, a widening of the Hayes river, shown on maps No. 8 and 100. It was included in 1856 list. Closed probably before 1869-70. Map No. 140 shows location of the lake.
The first fort on Swan lake (Manitoba) was built by the Hudson's Bay Co. in 1790. It was located about 4¾ miles up the Swan river from its outlet in the lake. This fort was not long maintained by the Company as they moved about 1808 to the outlet of Swan lake and operated there until about 1895. This fort is shown on map No. 37. It was sometimes called "Shoal River House" being at source of the Shoal river. The North West Co. at first located in the abandoned Hudson's Bay Co. fort or in the immediate neighbourhood and later moved 12 miles up the Swan river. On coalition in 1821 the H. B. Co. took over the N. W. Co. house and called it Swan Lake House. See maps No. 43, 37, 8, 13, 16, 2, 86, 7, 9, 101, 141. In 1800 Harmon built a fort 50 miles farther up the Swan river and called it Somerset House (Map No. 2). It was also known as Elbow Fort. Prior to 1806 the Swan and Red Deer rivers were main channels of trade of North West Co. with Plains Indians and a good cart trail extended along the north bank of the river. The X. Y. Co. also had a post 12 miles up the Swan river.
A Hudson's Bay Co. post on left bank of Dease river above the mouth of Dease river, B. C. built about 1890 to take the place of Toad River Post. It was called also Dease Post. See Fort Halkett. Maps No. 90, 35 and 91.
Hudson's Bay Co. fort near Stephen's Passage, B. C. Coast, a landlocked harbour. Built in 1842.
At mouth of Saguenay river. The oldest fur-trading post in Canada and one of the oldest settlements in North America. It was first visited by Jacques Cartier in 1535 and from that date the port of St. Malo kept up a constant trade with Tadoussac, several of Cartier's relatives being among the chief traders. At first the fisheries were the chief product, but the fur trade soon developed and Tadoussac became the chief mart for furs from northern and western regions. Basque, Norman, and Breton mariners frequented the harbour in their whaling voyages. The first trading post was established in 1599 by Pontgravé and Chauvin. Champlain visited the post in 1602. The first mission of the Récollet Father Dolbeau was established in 1615. The post was seized by Sir David Kirke in 1628. In 1661 the garrison was massacred by Indians. The Jesuits had charge of the mission from 1641 to 1782 when they were suppressed. Charlevoix relates that in 1670 there were rarely less than 1200 Indians to be seen encamped at Tadoussac, the entrepôt of the fur trade at that period, but in that year the small-pox scourge put an end to the trade by almost annihilating the Indians. Tadoussac was one of the first posts known as King's Posts in the King's Domain. After the cession of Canada, Dunn, Gray & Murray obtained the lease in 1764 and the North West Co. in 1788, the Hudson's Bay Co. in 1821, who did not operate the post after 1859. Mckenzie, who visited the post in 1808 for the North West Co. stated that "it was headquarters of the King's posts. The chapel in 1808 had stood for 110 years (1698-1808). In 1775 the field pieces at the post saved it from American privateers". The present chapel was built in 1747 upon the remains of the first chapel.
Called also Temagamingue "Deep Waters". Hudson's Bay Co. established a small post in 1820 on shore of a small cove at south end of Temagami island, near centre of the lake, ruins of which post are still visible. In 1875 the post was moved to Bear Island, its present location, on account of opposition fur trading by Alexander Dukes. Lake Temagami was visited by the French from fort Temiscaming via the Metabetchouan river as shown by pictographs on cliffs also by the Iroquois Indians who raided the entire region in 1660. The North West Co. operated six outposts from fort Timiscaming and possibly they had a post on lake Temagami. Map No. 46 shows location of first post. Ontario.
Hudson's Bay Co. post on lake Temiskamay near east end of lake Mistassini emptying into lake Little Mistassini (lake Albanel). It was built about 1825 and was an outpost of Mistassini House. The post is given in lists of 1836, 1857,1869 and 1872 and was closed about 1890. Map No. 8 shows "Timmiskummay". A. P. Low in 1884 found remains of the old abandoned post consisting of square spruce logs.
See White Earth.
See Fort Espérance.
See Fort Kamloops.
Originally built by French in 1755 at south end lake Champlain on outlet of lake George, and called by them fort Carillon after the chiming sound of the waters. It was so named in Bougainville's list 1757. This fort was defended by Montcalm July 5, 1758, against Abercrombie. It was captured by Amherst July 26, 1759 after being deserted and blown up by the French. Amherst then rebuilt the fort at great cost and renamed it Ticonderoga. This fort surrendered to Ethan Allen May 10, 1775. It was recaptured by Burgoyne July 5, 1777.
See Fort Detroit.
Old French fort on the east shore of lake Timiskaming (Ottawa river) on a point at the Narrows, north shore of Laperrière bay, on the route to lake Abitibi and James bay. Built in 1686 after Sieur de Troyes' expedition to Moose river for the capture of the Hudson's Bay Co. forts on James bay. See map No. 46. This fort was in active service under the French until the cession of Canada. It was a strong and important post, large and well equipped. Immediately after being deserted by the French, it was occupied by the free-traders and then by the North West Co. In 1821 it became the headquarters of the Hudson's Bay Co. for surrounding posts and was noted for its large library. The post was abandoned in 1888 and a small store was erected near the village of Baie des Pères (Ville Marie) about 4 miles north of the old fort. Mattawa then became the headquarters with the opening of the C.P. Ry. Maps 10, 8, 100 & 101.
The diary of de Troyes entitled, Relations and Journal of a Journey to the North by a detachment of 100 men under command of Sieur de Troyes, March 1686, says that the party arrived at the house of The Company of the North on an island of lake Timiskamingue "situated between two rapids proceeding from a little river called Metabec-Chouan", where 14 men of the Company were on duty. This island lies at the outlet of the Metabitchouan and Montreal rivers which empty into lake Timiskaming nearly conjointly. This was the first post on the lake and was built by the Compagnie du Nord between 1676 and 1685. About 1870 the Hudson's Bay Co. operated a small post at the ancient Indian village at the head of the lake.
A small Hudson's Bay Co. post on the left bank of the Liard river near mouth of Toad river B. C. Built in 1875 to take the place of Fort Halkett. It was abandoned about 1890. Shown on maps No. 90 and 35. See fort Halkett.
French fort on left bank Tombigbee river a branch of the Mobile river not far from the present city of Columbus, Mississippi. It is shown on Bellin's map 1755 (No. 93) and on Rocques 1763 (No. 96) and as a settlement on Bowen's map 1763 (No. 98) and Pallairet's 1755 (No. 119).
See Fort Rouillé.
Hudson's Bay Co. post on the east side of Touchwood Hills and northeast of Last Mountain, Saskatchewan. Established before 1850. In operation 1858. Closed temporarily in August 1862. Included in 1869 list of posts with Deed of Surrender. No trace of the fort remained in 1873.
French fort at the junction of Coosa and Talipoosa rivers uniting to form the Alabama river in state of Alabama. It was called also fort Alabama. Shown on Bellin's map 1755 (No. 93) on Bowen's 1763 No. 98 and Rocques 1763 (No. 96).
Hudson's Bay Co. post on southwest shore of Coronation Gulf, 4 miles east of mouth of Coppermine river. A recent post.
See Erlandson Post.
On the St. Lawrence. Mission and trading post established 1617. Settlement and village founded 1634. Fort built 1634. In 1653 the settlement was almost destroyed by the Iroquois. For 100 years this post was much frequented by Indians trading from the north and west, but Montreal afterwards monopolized the trade. After the cession of Canada, 1762, this old French post eventually came to the North West Co. and to the Hudson's Bay Co. in 1821 who operated the post until about 1870. Jesuit map of 1660 (No. 102) shows mission and fort.
See fort Kaministiquia.
Hudson's Bay Co. post on Trout lake, a tributary of lac Barrière and Grand Lake Victoria, Quebec. Built later than 1760 and shown on map No. 24.
A Hudson's Bay Co. fort on Fort Island at north end of Trout lake (Fawn lake) near the source of Fawn river, tributary of the Severn river, in northern Ontario. Built about 1830, or earlier and in operation to date. The North West Co. had a post on Trout Lake in 1793 and to this the Hudson's Bay Co. may have succeeded. Shown on Arrowsmith maps 1832 (No. 101), 1850 (No. 100), 1857 (No. 8) also on map No. 140.
Small, but old, post of Hudson's Bay Co. on southeast shore of Trout lake about 40 miles north of outlet of Lac Seul, Ontario, District of Lac la Pluie. It was included in 1869 & 1872 lists. Shown on map No. 57.
Small Hudson's Bay Co. post on west bank of stream entering southernmost of Trout lakes (now called Peerless lake) 56°30'N & 114°30'W. in Athabaska district, Alberta. Probably established about 1880. Shown on map No. 69 dated 1897. At head of trail from Wabiskaw.
See Montagne à la Bosse.
North West Co. post on south side of Saskatchewan river about one mile below mouth of Turtle river and 4½ miles above mouth of Jackfish (Pike) river, near town of Delmas in Tp. 46, R. 18, W. of 3rd Meridian, Saskatchewan. A. Henry Jr. in 1808 passed old "Turtle fort" which stood in a low bottom on south bank. In 1800 Thompson found the post in ruins.
Hudson's Bay Co. post on the Red river at mouth of Turtle river about 18 miles north of present Grand Forks. It was built by McLeod in November 1812. John Cameron was sent by A. Henry in Sept. 1802 to build a fort on Turtle river.
Stockaded fort of Hudson's Bay Co. at mouth of Umpqua river, Oregon. Built in 1822. One of the forts for which the Company claimed indemnity in 1865. See Oregon Territory.
A Hudson's Bay Co. farm and post on Vancouver Island near fort Victoria. It was included in the lists of 1869 and 1872 and shown on map No. 21.
See fort A la Corne.
See White Earth River.
Hudson's Bay Co. fort on right bank of Columbia river, six miles above its junction with the Willamette river. Built in 1824-25, under charge of Dr. John McLoughlin. Occupied as being on British territory until the treaty of 1846. The fort was maintained by the Company for several years after the Treaty, until dispossessed by U. S. military authorities in 1860. In 1847 McLoughlin was succeeded by Peter Skene Ogden who afterwards transferred the Company's headquarters to Victoria. The fort was of large size, enclosed by stockade 750 X 600 feet and had attached a 1500 acre farm. The enclosure contained the fort with dwelling houses, store-houses, servants' quarters, shops, barns &c. On the appertaining land were barns, stables and farm buildings near the main fort. Cultivated fields, pasturage, extended along the Columbia river bank for 25 miles and 10 miles back from the river, also on Sauvé and Menzie's islands. It was sometimes called Fort Columbia. Maps No. 8, 100 & 101.
French fort built in 1753 on right bank of Allegheny river at mouth of river Au Boeuf (now called French Creek), on site of present city of Franklin, Pennsylvania. It was occupied by the British in 1760 after being deserted by the French who retired to Detroit. It was captured by Pontiac on June 20, 1763. Maps No. 9 & 98.
See Fort L'Huiltier.
North West Co. fort on north bank of Peace river near mouth of Boyer river. The first fort, known as the "Old Establishment", was built by Boyer 1798. After union of 1821 this fort was taken over by the Hudson's Bay Co. who later built a new establishment about 5 miles farther up stream from Boyer river, and still operate the post. Harmon visited the Old Establishment in 1808. The Arrowsmith map of 1857 (No. 8) shows the location of the "Old Fort". See also maps No. 11, 100, & 101.
Both the North West Co. and the Hudson's Bay Co. built closely adjoining forts called Vermilion in 1808, on North Saskatchewan river, on north side directly opposite mouth of Vermilion river, Alberta. Both these forts were abandoned on the same day, May 31 1810, and the goods were transported to new forts at the mouth of White Earth river about 87 miles upstream. The Hudson's Bay Co. maintained their post at White Earth river until about 1870. A. Henry Jr. was there in September 1808. It was sometimes called Lower Fort Des Prairies. See White Earth river and Old White Mud Fort. Maps No. 11, 40, 36.
Hudson's Bay Co. fort on Vancouver Island. Built in 1843 by Sir George Simpson and Douglas. In 1849 it was headquarters of the Western Department. In 1846 about 160 acres were cultivated in wheat etc., and in 1847 about 300 acres. The first name given after the fort was built was Fort Camosun. Shortly after, the name was changed to Fort Albert in honour of the Prince Consort and again changed to Fort Victoria.
French fort on Wabash river about 50 miles below Ouatanon, now Vincennes, Knox County, Indiana. First fort was built in 1702 and this was rebuilt in 1710. It was the seat of empire of France in the Ohio valley. Called simply "Le Poste" for over 30 years and name then changed to Vincennes, after de Vincenne one of the officers of the fort. It was included in Bougainville's list of forts 1757, as dependent on New Orleans, It was surrendered to the British in 1763; captured by Americans in 1779 and named by them Fort Sackville. It was recaptured by the British and finally by the Americans and name changed to Fort Patrick Henry. It is named Fort Ste. Anne or Vincennes on Danville's map 1755 (No 97) and placed at the mouth of Ste. Anne river, a tributary of the Wabash. Also maps No. 93 and 10.
See Nipigon House.
See Baie Chateau.
Originally a North West Co. fort on left bank Columbia river, at mouth of Walla Walla river 5 miles below mouth of Lewis or Great Snake river. Built in 1818. The Hudson's Bay Co. succeeded to this fort in 1821 and rebuilt it in 1841, the walls and bastions of brick. It was surrounded by sandy desert. The Hudson's Bay Co. claimed indemnity for this fort in 1865 (See Oregon Territory). Maps No. 12, 100, 101, & 8. It was sometimes called fort Nez Percés.
Hudson's Bay Co. fort on lake Wapikopa, Ontario, headwaters of the Winisk river (55°N. & 88°15'W.) about 85 miles north of Gloucester House. It is shown on Arrowsmith maps of 1832 and 1857 (No. 101 & 8). On Bell's map of lake Nipigon 1910 (No. 59) "site of old Hudson's Bay Co. fort" is marked., and on McInnis' map of Keewatin 1903 (No. 54) it is named "Old fort Concord".
See fort Battle River.
Hudson's Bay Co. post at outlet of lake Waswanipi, northern Quebec, an old post antedating 1820 and possibly originally a French post. At the time of union 1821, both the Hudson's Bay Co. and the North West Co. had posts at this spot. It was included in the 1869 list with Deed of Surrender also in 1857 list. Is still in operation. Maps No. 8, 100, No. 101 and 63.
Hudson's Bay Co. post on the east shore of Waterhen lake, Manitoba, at the southern extremity, (51°55'N; 99°35'W). It is shown on Tyrrell's map of northwestern Manitoba 1891 (No. 43). About 1885 this post was moved from near the outlet of lake Waterhen (where the old fort had stood for many years) to present location.
Hudson's Bay Co. fort on Lake Athabaska on Coal island, one mile from Fort Chipewyan. In 1808 the Hudson's Bay Co. abandoned the whole of the Athabaska district to the North West Co. and also Fort Nottingham built in 1802. In 1815 they returned and built Fort Wedderburne. This fort was seized by Norman McLeod of the North West Co. March 23, 1817, but was re-established in 1818. In 1820, Simpson, afterwards Governor, wintered there. After the union of 1821, the Hudson's Bay Co. took over fort Chipewyan, (which had been enlarged several times), and after about 1860 fort Wedderburne was closed. Maps No. 100, 101 & 8. See fort Nottingham.
Hudson's Bay Co. post on Weenisk (Pepesquew) lake Ontario, near source of Weenisk river (53°N. 87°30'W). Built before 1820. The North West Co. also had an adjoining post. Maps No. 8, 68, 100, 101, and 57. Sometimes called Pepesquew fort.
Hudson's Bay Co. post on the upper St. Maurice river (now Manuan or Weymount on the C.N.R.) Built before 1827; included in the 1857 list; shown on Arrowsmith map 1832 (No. 101) and in operation to date. Map No. 24 and the Standard Sheet Montreal-Quebec.
Hudson's Bay Co. post on Winnipeg river at mouth of White Dog river, outlet of White Dog lake, north of the Dalles and Rat Portage, Ontario. Shown on the Arrowsmith map 1857 (No. 8) and on Sectional Sheet No 74.
Hudson's Bay Co. and North West Co. operated adjoining forts on the north Saskatchewan river at mouth of White Earth river (112°15'W.) to which location they removed in 1810 from the mouth of Vermilion river. The site was a short distance below the present Victoria, (See fort Vermilion (2)), and a short distance below "Mud Brook House" (Fort Augustus). Thompson visited the region in 1800. It was called also Terre Blanche, White Earth House, White Mud Brook, and Lower White Earth or Mud Fort. Shown on map No. 11.
Hudson's Bay Co. and North West Co. removed from Edmonton in 1810 to north side of Saskatchewan river at east side of a small stream, about 2 miles below present White Lake Creek, half way between fort Augustus (Edmonton) and Boggy Hall 114°20'N, in Section 30, Tp. 51, R. 2, West of 5th Meridian. The post last appears on the 1872 list and was probably closed about 1875. Known also as White Mud fort, Old White Mud, Upper Terre Blanche, Upper White Earth. A. Henry Jr. in 1811 described the fort as being in a "pretty location on an elevated plain with range of hills in rear". Established 1810 for trade with the Assiniboines. See Fort Augustus. Shown on map No. 36. See also No. 406 [sic].
Small fort built by Alex. Henry in autumn of 1799 on the White Mud river (Terre Blanche) emptying into south end of lake Manitoba about 35 to 40 miles northwest of Portage la Prairie. Henry rebuilt this fort in 1810.
Small Hudson's Bay Co. post on Whitefish bay, Lake of the Woods. It was included in list of posts with Deed of Surrender 1869 and last appears on the 1872 list.
Hudson's Bay Co. post on Whitefish lake (now called Utikuma lake, meaning whitefish) about 20 miles north of Lesser Slave lake, draining into Peace river by Wabiskaw river. Erected before 1830, included in 1869 list, and still in operation. The North West Co. also built a fort nearby. Maps No. 35, 69, 8, 100, 101.
Old Hudson's Bay Co. post on north bank of Assiniboine river near present town of Headingly, about 12 miles west of Winnipeg. It was located near the North West Co. Pine Fort, and built on site of Blondish's old fort. It is shown on Arrowsmith map 1856 (No. 8) and was included in 1856 list. Probably built about 1810. Closed about 1880.
A North West Co. post on Willamette river outpost of Fort George (Fort Vancouver). Named on the company list 1820.
North West Co. fort on left bank of Ottawa river above the north end of Allumettes island. It was known also as fort Lac des Allumettes and stood on the site of an old French fort. The Hudson's Bay Co. succeeded to this establishment in 1821. Shown on map No. 8.
North west Co. fort built on site of the old French fort Kaministiquia (q.v.) on lake Superior at mouth of the Kaministiquia river. The North west Co. used the Grand Portage route until 1801-2 when they moved to Kaministiquia and used thenceforth the old French route to the west which had been rediscovered by Roderick McKenzie 1798, the Grand Portage being on American territory. They rebuilt the old French fort in 1800 and called it "New Fort". On the union of the X. Y. Co. and the North West Co. the fort was again rebuilt in 1804 and called Fort William. It was a great trading centre, the entrepôt to the great west and northwest, and all furs and supplies of the Company passed through this fort both ways for nearly a quarter century. Supplies were received by schooner from St. Mary's, though transported at first by canoe. The fort was surrounded by palisades 15 feet high with bastions. Within the enclosure were a log-house dining room, Council House, Doctor's residence, storehouses, forge, workshops, prison, shipyard, garden, cattle & horses. A look-out was always maintained. The fort was captured by Lord Selkirk in 1817 and came under control of the Hudson's Bay Co. at the union of both companies in 1821. After the union Fort William began to decline as a trading centre, furs being transported by way of Norway House and York Factory, and McLean says that in 1833 the fort was rapidly decaying and had become "a petty post". Across the Kaministiquia river at Pointe de Meuron (q.v.) the Hudson's Bay Co. maintained a small observation post during the activities of the North West Co.
See fort Lévis.
Fort built by English at foot of lake George in 1755. Captured by Montcalm August 9,1757, and the garrison massacred by Indians after surrender. It was recaptured by Amherst in July 1759.
See Bas de la Rivière.
See fort Alexander.
See Bas de la Rivière.
Hudson's Bay Co. post at the upper end of lake Winikapau, an enlargement of Hamilton river, Labrador, about 150 miles above North West River House and 50 miles below Grand Falls. It was established about 1830 but abandoned 1876 and soon afterwards it was destroyed by fire. Map No. 61.
Hudson's Bay Co. post near Cape Wolstenholme, Ungava. Built in 1909 and in present operation. Map No. 24.
See fort Highfield.
Small Hudson's Bay Co. post on northeast shore lake Temiscamingue, Ottawa river, one mile above Piché Point. Built about 1880 and closed before 1890. Map No. 46.
Hudson's Bay Co. fort on Mackenzie river left bank, about 63°15'N., half way between Forts Norman and Simpson. Built by Chief Factor Camsell about 1880. Formerly known as "The Little Rapid". Named after the Chief Commissioner of the company. Map No. 25.
Hudson's Bay Co. post on Fraser river about 20 miles upstream from Fort Hope. Built in 1848 and closed about 1880.
French fort on the left bank Mississippi river at the mouth of Yazou river on south side. Marked "French fort" abandoned on Bellin's map 1755 No. 93, shown on Rocque's map 1763 (No. 96), and marked "destroyed" on Mitchell map 1775 (No. 111).
Hudson's Bay Co. fort at junction of Porcupine and Yukon rivers. Built 1847 by Alex. H. Murray. It was operated for 22 years until 1869 when Alaska was purchased by the United States. Map No. 84 shows it "abandoned".
|1.||Northwest Territories in "Conquest of Great Northwest" by Agnes C. Laut.|
|2.||Interior of North America engraved for Harmon's Journal 1820.|
|3.||North West Territories by G. Rinfret, from "Henry Thompson Travels" by Dr. Coues.|
|4.||America exhibiting Mackenzie's Track, Arrowsmith 1801.|
|5.||America exhibiting principal trading stations of North West Co. in Davidson's North West Co., London 1817.|
|6.||The Company's Territory in "The Great Company" by B. Willson.|
|7.||Portions of David Thompson's Map 1812 in "Henry Thompson's Journals" by Dr. Coues.|
|8.||North America, Arrowsmith 1857, showing territories claimed by Hudson's Bay Co.|
|9.||Part of Indian Territories in North America, exhibiting routes to stations of North West Co. from British Museum maps 69917 (75) about 1817.|
|10.||North America shewing possessions claimed by France in 1756, from Boundaries of Ontario.|
|11.||Early Alberta forts, by J. M. Wallace, Calgary.|
|12.||North West Canada from Crown Lands Report 1857, by T. Devine, Toronto, 1857.|
|13.||North-West Territory and Manitoba, from "Manitoba and the Great North West", J. Macoun 1882.|
|14.||Routes of Explorers in Atlas of Canada 1915.|
|15.||Carte des Lacs du Canada 1744, Bellin, Paris.|
|16.||North west Territory and Manitoba, Report of Minister of Interior 1877, by J. Johnston.|
|17.||British America, from "British America", Edinburgh, H. Murray, 1839, vol. 1.|
|18.||Carte du Canada ou de la Nouvelle France, Del'isle, Paris 1703.|
|19.||North America 1778 from Carver's Travels.|
|20.||New France, by La Hontan 1703, English edition 1735.|
|21.||Canada, from "Canada and the States-Recollections" 1851 to 1886 by Sir E. W. Watkin. H. B. Co. forts numbered for list of 1872.|
|22.||North America about 1845, Atlas, Blackie & Son, Glasgow.|
|23.||Part of Upper Canada, portages Mattawa to Georgian Bay, 1820.|
|24.||Forts & Trading Posts in Labrador Peninsula and adjoining portions of Ontario and Quebec, James White 1926.|
|25.||Mackenzie River, Topographical Survey, Department of the Interior 1923.|
|26.||New France, map of French forts in "History of Canada under French regime", by H.H.Miles 1872, Library of Parliament.|
|27.||Oregon Territory and Forts, in "History of San Juan Water Boundary question" by Viscount Milton 1869, Library of Parliament.|
|28.||Hudson Bay Territories 1763, in Series of Letters by E. Ermatinger 1858, report of T. K. Ramsay. Library of Parliament.|
|29.||North West Territories in Series of Letters etc.|
|30.||Location of Fort Nelson in Robeson's [Robson]"Six Years in Hudson's Bay", in "First Great Canadian",Reed.|
|31.||Part of North America, Del'isle 1700.|
|32.||Part of [North America, Del'isle] 1718.|
|33.||North West Territory, Report Dept. of Interior,1887|
|34.||Part of Northern Canada, Dept. of Interior 1907, in the "New North West".|
|35.||Northwestern part of Dominion of Canada, Dept. Of Interior 1898|
|36.||Northern Alberta, J.B. Tyrrell 1887. G. S. C.|
|37.||Northwest Territories and Manitoba 1894, Dept. of Interior, J. Johnston.|
|38.||District of Assiniboia 1811, Alex. Lean.|
|39.||Dominion of Canada, H. B. Co. Establishments 1924.|
|40.||Part of Alberta, G. S. Hume, 1925, G. S. C.|
|41.||Lake Athabaska to Churchill river, J. B. Tyrrell, 1895, G. S. C.|
|42.||Explored routes Churchill and Nelson rivers drainage area, W. McInnis 1914, G. S. C.|
|43.||Forest Distribution N. W. Manitoba &c. J. B. Tyrrell, 1891, G. S. C.|
|44.||Lake of the Woods and adjacent country, A. C. Lawson, 1897, G. S. C.|
|45.||French River sheet. R. Bell, 1897, G. S. C.|
|46.||Lake Temiskaming sheet, A. E. Barlow, 1908, G. S. C.|
|47.||Manitoulin Island sheet, R. Bell, 1907, G. S. C.|
|48.||Pembroke sheet, R. W. Ells, 1906, G. S. C.|
|49.||Lake Shebandowan sheet, W. McInnes, 1896, G. S. C|
|50.||Explorations from Lac Seul to Severn lake, C. Camsell, 1904, G. S. C|
|51.||District of Keewatin, D. B. Dowling, 1896, G. S. C.|
|52.||Northern Ontario, W. J. Wilson, 1903, G. S. C.|
|53.||Northwestern Ontario, W. J. Wilson, 1904, G. S. C.|
|54.||Part of District Keewatin, W. McInnis, 1903, G. S. C.|
|55.||Northern portion Labrador, A. P. Low, 1902, G. S. C.|
|56.||Northwestern Ontario, W. H. Collins & W. McInnis, 1909, G. S. C.|
|57.||Albany, Severn, Winisk rivers, W. McInnis, 1910, G. S. C.|
|58.||Portions of Algoma & Thunder Bay, W. J. Wilson & W. H. Collins, 1903, G. S. C.|
|59.||Lake Nipigon, R. Bell, 1910, G. S. C.|
|60.||Harricanaw-Turgeon Basin, J. M. Tanton, 1918, G. S. C.|
|61.||Labrador Peninsula, S. E., A. P. Low, 1896, G. S. C.|
|62.||Basin of Nottaway river, R. Bell, 1903, G. S. C.|
|63.||Labrador Peninsula, S.W., A. P. Low, 1896, G. S. C.|
|64.||Labrador Peninsula, N.W., A. P. Low, 1896, G. S. C.|
|65.||Labrador Peninsula, N. E., A. P. Low, 1896, G. S. C.|
|66.||Abitibi District, R. Bell, 1910, G. S. C.|
|67.||Gulf of St. Lawrence, north shore, G. Rinfret, 1913.|
|68.||Keewatin, Place Names N. Canada J. White, 1911.|
|69.||Peace to Athabaska rivers, R. G. McConnell, 1897, G. S. C.|
|70.||Province Quebec 1763, Capt. Carver, London, 1776|
|71.||Lake Abitibi Region,1901, W. T. Wilson & J. Johnstone, G. S. C.|
|72.||Thunder Bay District, Lake Nipigon, Dept. Lands & Forests, 1926.|
|73.||Lake Nipigon and River, Bell report, 1869. G. S. C.|
|74.||Canada, Desbiens 1546, "Labrador", Gosling.|
|75.||Canada, Molyneux 1598, "Labrador", Gosling.|
|76.||Nouvelle France, Paris, 1700, "Labrador", Gosling.|
|77.||British North America, Arrowsmith, 1854.|
|78.||Churchill Harbour, Top. S. 1927.|
|79.||Northwestern Ontario 1922, Dept. Lands & Forests.|
|80.||State of Washington, Dept. Interior, U. S. A.|
|81.||Northern B. C. & Peace River, G.M. Dawson, 1879, G. S. C.|
|82.||Hudson's Bay Country, Peter Pond, 1785.|
|83.||Geol. map Northwestern Manitoba, 1891.|
|84.||Alaska, B. C. & N. W. T., E. Heubach, 1897.|
|85.||Partie de la Nouvelle France, Jaillot, 1685.|
|86.||Three maps in Bryce's Hudson's Bay Co.|
|87.||Basin Moose river, R. Bell, 1880, G. S. C.|
|88.||Minnesota - Thompson's route to Fond-du-Lac.|
|89.||Upper Yukon river, Dept. Interior Report 1887.|
|90.||Mackenzie river & Yukon basins, R. G. McConnell, 1890, G. S. C.|
|91.||British Columbia, Dept. Lands B. C., 1912.|
|92.||Idaho, Dept. Interior, U. S. A., 1921.|
|93.||North America, Bellin, 1755.|
|94.||North America, DeL'Isle 1700.|
|95.||Part of New France, Bellin, 1744.|
|96.||North America, Rocque, 1763.|
|97.||Louisiane et Terres Anglaises, D'Anville 1755.|
|98.||North America, Bowen, 1763.|
|99.||North America, Huske, 1755.|
|100.||North America, Arrowsmith, 1850.|
|101.||North America, Arrowsmith, 1832.|
|102.||New France, Père Creuxius, 1660.|
|103.||Labrador Concessions, J. White, 1926.|
|104.||Labrador Concessions below Anticosti, J. White, 1926.|
|105.||Terre Ferme de Mingan, J. White 1926.|
|106.||Hudson's Bay Co. Turner, 1790.|
|107.||Mississippi river, Balisle to Chartres, T. Kitchin, 1750?|
|108.||Middle British Colonies, Pownall, 1776.|
|109.||Domaine du Roy—Père Laure, 1731.|
|110.||N. France, Trois R. au Mingan, Père Laure 1730.|
|111.||British Colonies, Nor. America, Mitchell 1775.|
|112.||Canada & Louisiana, Le Rouge, 1755.|
|113.||Claims of French 1756, De Bussy.|
|114.||North America, Bell, 1772.|
|115.||North America, Hondius, 1630.|
|116.||North America, Sanson, 1669.|
|117.||Canada, Jaillot, 1696.|
|118.||America, Hasius, 1746.|
|119.||Possessions of English and French, Palairet, 1755.|
|120.||Upper Canada 1821, Longman.|
|121.||Upper Canada 1800, D. W. Smith S. G.|
|122.||Upper Yukon river, J. Johnstone 1887.|
|123.||Nipissing District, A. E. Barlow 1908, G. S. C.|
|124.||New Northwest Exploration 1908-9, Dept. Int.|
|125.||Norway House sheet, Topl. Surv. 1928.|
|126.||Oxford and Knee lake Area 1926, G. S. C.|
|127.||Jasper Park, central part, 1917.|
|128.||Churchill Harbour & Vicinity. Topl. Survey, 1927.|
|129.||Standard Maps, L. Superior to Winnipeg, Canoe routes.|
|130.||Temiscamingue & Abitibi, Dept. Lands & Forests, Quebec, 1924.|
|131.||Upper Ottawa Agency, Dept. Lands & Forests, Quebec, 1901.|
|132.||Rainy River Sheet Standard map.|
|134.||Route L. Superior to Red river settlement, Dawson, 1869.|
|135.||Lake Temiskaming & Mining Region 1910|
|136.||Gowganda Sheet Standard Map.|
|137.||Northern Ontario, 1924.|
|138.||Part of English River system, Lac Seul to Ball lake.|
|139.||Blue print of Trading posts 1925.|
|140.||Nelson River Exploring Expedition, J. B. Tyrrell, 1913.|
|141.||Northwest Territories. Dept. Interior, 1878. Report.|
|142.||British & French Dominions in N. A., Mitchell 1755.|
|143.||Ross's Map Mississippi river 1765.|
|144.||Port Arthur & Fort William 1921|
|145.||North America DeL'Isle 1718|
|146.||Red Lake Gold Area 1926 G. S. C.|
|147.||Pelican Narrows, Topographical Survey, 1929.|
|7||Fort A la Corne|
|11||Fort Alexander (1)|
|12||Fort Alexander (2)|
|20||Arctic Red River post|
|Fort Assiniboine River|
|28||Fort Athabaska River|
|30||Lake Attawapiscat Post|
|31||Au Chat Falls post|
|33||Fort Aux Trembles|
|41||Fort Bas de la Rivière|
|42||Batchawana Bay post|
|43||Fort Battle River|
|47||Fort Beaver Lake|
|48||Beaver Lake House|
|54||Berens River House|
|55||Betsiamites or Bersimis post|
|56||Big Island House|
|57||Big Island post|
|58||Big Lake House|
|61||Black River post|
|70||Bow River Fort|
|75||Buck Lake House|
|Buffalo Lake House|
|Fort Buffalo River|
|78||Burntwood Lake House|
|79||Port Burwell Post|
|83||Fort Cap Charles|
|84||Fort Cape Disappointment|
|85||Capot River Fort|
|88||Fort Carlton (1)|
|93||Cat Lake House|
|94||Cedar Lake House|
|98||Fort Charlotte (1)|
|99||Fort Charlotte (2)|
|110||Fort Chipewyan Lake|
|112||Clear Water Lake House|
|114||Cold Lake House|
|125||Fort Crown Point|
|Fort Cumberland (1)|
|126||Fort Cumberland (2)|
|131||Dauphin Lake House|
|132||Davis Inlet post|
|133||Dease lake Fort|
|134||Fort de Bull|
|Fort Deer Lake|
|Fort De la Frenier|
|135||Fort de la Présentation|
|136||Fort De l'Assomption (1)|
|137||Fort De l'Assomption (2)|
|138||Fort De l'Isle (1)|
|139||Fort De l'Isle (2)|
|140||Fort de Longueuil|
|Fort Des Prairies|
|Fort Des Trembles|
|144||Duck Bay House|
|145||Fort Du Lièvre|
|146||Fort Du Milieu|
|Fort Du Traite|
|Fort Du Tremble|
|151||Eabamet Lake House|
|Eagle Hills Fort|
|152||Eagle's Nest House|
|153||East Main Fort|
|154||Egg Lake House|
|156||Encampment Island Fort|
|English River House|
|Esquimaux Bay Post|
|Esquimau River Post|
|162||Fairford House (1)|
|163||Fairford House (2)|
|164||False River Post|
|166||Finlay's House (1)|
|167||Finlay House (2)|
|169||Flat Heads House|
|171||Fort Fond-du-Lac (1)|
|172||Fort Fond-du-Lac (2)|
|173||Fort of the Forks (1)|
|Fort of the Forks (2)|
|174||Fort of the Forks, "La Fourche" (3)|
|175||Fort Frances (1)|
|176||Fort Frances (2)|
|181||Frog Lake House|
|184||Fort George (1)|
|185||Fort George (2)|
|186||Fort George (3)|
|187||Fort George River (4)|
|188||Fort George (5)|
|189||Fort George (6)|
|190||Fort George (7)|
|Fort George (8)|
|Fort George (9)|
|195||God's Lake House|
|196||Fort Good Hope|
|198||Grand Forks House|
|199||Fort Grand Lake Victoria|
|Fort Grand Marais|
|200||Fort Grand Portage|
|201||Grand Rapids House|
|202||Grant's House on Assiniboine River|
|203||Grant's House on Red River|
|204||Grant's House on Red River|
|206||Great Whale River House|
|207||Fort Green Lake|
|208||Green Lake House|
|210||Gros Mécatina Post|
|211||Gwillim Lake House|
|214||Hannah Bay House|
|215||Harrison, Port, post|
|216||Hay River Post|
|218||Henry's House (1)|
|219||Henry's House (2)|
|220||Henry's House (3)|
|221||Herschel Island Post|
|224||Fort Hope (1)|
|225||Fort Hope (2)|
|226||Fort Hope (3)|
|227||Fort Hudson's Hope|
|228||Hudson's House (1)|
|229||Hudson's House (2)|
|231||Hungry Hall House (1)|
|232||Hungry Hall House (2)|
|235||Fort Ile-à-la Crosse|
|240||Island Lake Fort|
|241||Isonglass River Post|
|243||Jack River House|
|244||Jackson's Bay House|
|257||Keg River post|
|263||Kootenay Falls House|
|265||Fort La Boulaye|
|266||Lac à la Martre|
|267||Fort Lac-au-Serpent (Snake Lake)|
|268||Lac Barrière Post|
|Lac des Allumettes|
|270||Lac des Chats post|
|271||Lac des Deux Montagnes|
|272||Fort Lac Des Roseaux|
|273||Fort Lac des Sables|
|274||Fort Lac d'Orignal (1)|
|275||Fort Lac d'Orignal (2)|
|276||Lac d'Orignal House (3)|
|Lac-du-Brochet (Pike Fish)|
|279||Lac La Nonne House|
|Lac La Pluie|
|280||Fort Lac la Ronge|
|281||Fort Lac Seul|
|282||Lac Traverse post|
|283||Fort La Chine|
|284||Fort La Cloche|
|Fort La Galette|
|285||Fort La Jonquière|
|286||Fort Lake of the Woods|
|287||Fort Lake St. John|
|288||Fort La Maune|
|289||Fort La Montée|
|290||Fort La Motte|
|293||La Pierre's House|
|Fort La Pointe|
|294||Fort La Prairie|
|295||Fort L'Arbre Croche|
|296||Fort La Reine|
|297||Fort La Ronde|
|Fort La Ronge|
|298||La Sarre post|
|299||Fort La Tour|
|Fort La Maune|
|300||Fort La Traite|
|301||Leaf River post|
|302||Leech Lake fort|
|304||Le Roy's House|
|305||Fort les Cedres|
|306||Lesser Slave Lake forts|
|307||Fort Le Sueur|
|Fort Les Trois Rivières|
|311||Little Current House|
|312||Little Grand Rapids House|
|Little Red River Fort|
|313||Little Whale River post|
|315||Long Lake fort|
|316||Long Point House|
|317||Fort Longue Sault|
|Lower Fort Des Prairies|
|320||Lower Fort Garry|
|Lower Hudson House|
|321||Fort Lower Nipawi|
|329||Fort Machault (Machaud)|
|330||Mackenzie River post|
|336||Fort Manicouagan (2)|
|339||Martin Falls House|
|340||Manuan Lake post|
|345||Fort Maurepas (1)|
|346||Fort Maurepas (2)|
|347||Fort Methye Lake|
|Fort Methye Portage|
|348||Fort Miami (1)|
|349||Fort Miami (2)|
|354||Migiskan River Post|
|355||Mille Lacs House.|
|Fort Monsippi (Monsoni)|
|366||Fort Montagne à la Bosse|
|367||Fort Montagne d'Aigle|
|Fort Montagne Oiseau|
|Moose Lake Fort|
|Mouse River Fort|
|369||Mud Lake post|
|380||Fort Nelson (1)|
|381||Nelson House (2)|
|382||Fort Nelson (3)|
|Fort Neuve Savanne|
|386||New Brunswick House|
|Fort New Caledonia|
|387||Fort New Orleans|
|388||New Post (1)|
|389||New Post (2)|
|397||North Dairy Farm|
|398||North West River House|
|Nut Lake House|
|401||Oak Point House|
|404||Old French House|
|405||Old Red River House|
|406||Old White Mud Fort|
|417||Pas Mountain House|
|Peace River Landing|
|Peel River House|
|420||Fort Pelly Banks|
|421||Fort Pembina (1)|
|422||Fort Pembina (2)|
|423||Fort Pembina (3)|
|424||Fort Pembina (4)|
|427||Petite Nation Fort|
|431||Fort Pigeon Lake|
|432||Pike Lake House|
|434||Pineimuta Lake Post|
|436||Fort Pitt (1)|
|Fort Pitt (2)|
|437||Fort Pointe Coupé|
|438||Pointe de Meuron House|
|439||Fort Pontchartrain (1)|
|440||Poplar Fort (1)|
|Poplar Fort (2)|
|441||Poplar River Fort|
|442||Portage de l'Isle House|
|Fort Prince of Wales|
|446||Fort Providence (1)|
|447||Fort Providence (2)|
|448||Fort Providence (3)|
|Fort Rainy Lake|
|456||Fort Rapid River|
|457||Rat Portage House|
|458||Red Cedar Lake House|
|459||Red Deer River House|
|460||Red Lake House (1)|
|461||Red Lake house (2)|
|462||Red River Fort|
|463||Red Rock House|
|464||Reed Lake House|
|466||Fort Reliance (2)|
|Fort Repulse Bay|
|474||Fort Rivière Desert|
|476||Rocky Mountain House (1)|
|477||Rocky Mountain House (2)|
|Fort Rupert or Rupert's House|
|484||Rush Lake House|
|485||Fort St. Albert|
|486||Fort Ste. Anne (1)|
|487||St. Augustine post|
|488||Fort St. Charles (1)|
|489||Fort St. Charles (2)|
|490||Fort St. Croix|
|491||Fort St. François (1)|
|492||Fort St. François (2)|
|493||Fort St. François (3)|
|Fort St. François (4)|
|Fort St. Frédérick|
|494||Fort Ste. Geneviève|
|Fort St. Germain|
|Fort St. Ignace|
|Fort St. Jacques|
|495||Fort St. James|
|496||Fort St. John|
|497||Fort St. John (St. Jean)|
|498||Fort St. Joseph (1)|
|499||Fort St. Joseph (2)|
|500||Fort St. Joseph (3)|
|501||Fort St. Joseph (4)|
|502||Fort St. Joseph (5)|
|503||Fort St. Louis (1)|
|504||Fort St. Louis (2)|
|506||Fort St. Nicholas|
|507||St. Paul House|
|508||St. Paul Post|
|509||Fort St. Philip|
|510||Fort St. Pierre|
|511||Fort St. Regis|
|512||Fort Ste. Rose|
|513||Fort Ste. Thérèse (1)|
|Fort Ste. Thérèse (2)|
|Fort St. Xavier|
|515||Fort Salmon River|
|516||Salt River House|
|518||Sandy Banks House|
|519||Sandy Lake House (1)|
|520||Sandy Lake House (2)|
|521||Fort Sault St. Louis|
|522||Fort Sault Ste. Marie|
|526||Setting Lake Post|
|528||Severn Lake House|
|529||Shamattawa River Post|
|530||Shell River Fort|
|532||Shingle Point Post|
|533||Shoal Lake House|
|Shoal River House|
|535||Fort Simpson (1)|
|536||Fort Simpson (2)|
|537||Sipiwesk Lake House|
|Fort Slude River|
|540||Fort Souris (1)|
|541||Fort Souris (2)|
|Fort Souris (3)|
|542||South Branch House (1)|
|543||South Branch House (2)|
|South Reindeer Lake House|
|544||South River House (1)|
|South River House (2)|
|545||Split Lake House|
|Stone Indian River House|
|Fort Stewart Lake|
|550||Sturgeon Lake Fort (1)|
|Sturgeon Lake Fort (2)|
|551||Sturgeon River house|
|552||Swampy Lake House|
|553||Swan Lake House|
|554||Sylvester's Lower Post|
|555||Fort Taco (Taku)|
|Fort Terre Blanche|
|561||Toad River Post|
|563||Touchwood Hills House|
|565||Tree River Post|
|566||Fort Trois Rivières (1)|
|Fort Trois Rivières (2)|
|567||Trout lake Post (1)|
|568||Trout lake Fort (2)|
|569||Trout Lake Post (3)|
|570||Trout Lake Post (4)|
|Turtle Mountain House|
|571||Turtle River House (1)|
|572||Turtle River Post (2)|
|Upper Neepawa Fort|
|575||Upper Red River House|
|Upper Terre Blanche Fort|
|Fort Verde (Vert)|
|578||Fort Vermilion (1)|
|579||Fort Vermilion (2)|
|580||Fort Victoria (1)|
|581||Fort Victoria (2)|
|584||Fort Walla Walla|
|Fort War Road|
|587||Waterhen Lake House|
|591||Whale River Post|
|592||White Dog House|
|593||Fort White Earth River (1)|
|594||Fort White Earth River (2)|
|595||Fort White Earth River (3)|
|596||Whitefish Bay House|
|597||Fort Whitefish lake (1)|
|598||Fort Whitefish lake (2)|
|599||White Horse Plains House|
|White Mud Fort|
|600||Willamette River Fort|
|601||Fort William (1)|
|602||Fort William (2)|
|Fort William Augustus|
|603||Fort William Henry|
|604||Windy Lake House|
|Winnipeg Forts, List of|
|Winnipeg Lake Fort|
|Winnipeg River House|
|614||Cross Lake House]|